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Since the moment our Administration took over the management of prisons (1984), we have been developing a model based on some principles strongly connected with the dynamic security: - Security, rehabilitation and high standards of human rights in prison are compatible and complementary goals. We think that no one is previous to the others; we have to develop all of them at the same time. A good implementation of rehabilitation activities improves security in prison, and the social climate is better when inmates feel that their basic needs are fulfilled. - The behavior of inmates in a prison depend not only nor mainly on their personality or other background factors. The prison environment has an important impact on how people being there behaves - Punishment by itself is a poor way to prevent conflict. Having positive expectations as a consequence of achievements is more effective - An important part of the prison operation must be dedicated to treatment activities oriented to the learning of social skills and to overcome underlying factors for antisocial behavior - We also have to adapt the level of intervention and surveillance to the level of risk of each inmate - Maintaining and fostering the connection of inmates with the external world is a fundamental mean not only for the future reintegration but also for the positive behavior in the prison setting - Finally, we see the rehabilitation goal of the prison services as the best way to ensure public protection by decreasing reoffendingWhat risks or challenges have you identified or experienced and how have you managed to resolve these?
A positive way to prevent disruptive behaviors is to keep inmates occupied in constructive activities. If they spend most of their time doing work, learning, sport or leisure activities in contact with professionals, the stimuli and opportunities for interpersonal conflicts, dealing and using drugs or other antisocial behaviors decrease. - That’s why, since the early stages of our model, having a large staff in charge of rehabilitation activities has been an important aim for Prison Services. - A few years ago, we developed the Curricula Organization Program in order to arrange a more common offer of activities in all prisonsWhat benefits have you gained?
- The hole activity in all prisons is structured in five fields that include a certain number of programmes and activities>
- The daily life in the prison is structured in time slots for activities that are from 9 to 1:30 and 3 to 7
- Case management plan and motivational system:
- We think that living in a prison with no goals or expectations makes people more dangerous. This one of the reasons why prison teams offer to each inmate an Individual Treatment Plan that makes clear what the goals and activities they have to achieve are and the improvements in the regime conditions they can expect as they progress following this plan
- This progress is assessed quarterly through the Assessment and Motivation System (SAM), a tool used to assign to each inmate a level of performance (form D to A). Depending of the levels obtained they will be able to access to temporary leaves, open regime or a shortened date for parole among other improvements
This is how we understand and operate dynamic security:
- Designing organization and prison environment to influence inmates’ behavior
- Obtaining a high level of interaction among staff and inmates
- Giving expectations through case management and a motivational system
- Assessing and managing risk
- Opening prison to community keeping inmates in contact with social environment
Case management plan and motivational system: - We think that living in a prison with no goals or expectations makes people more dangerous. This one of the reasons why prison teams offer to each inmate an Individual Treatment Plan that makes clear what the goals and activities they have to achieve are and the improvements in the regime conditions they can expect as they progress following this plan - This progress is assessed quarterly through the Assessment and Motivation System (SAM), a tool used to assign to each inmate a level of performance (form D to A). Depending of the levels obtained they will be able to access to temporary leaves, open regime or a shortened date for parole among other improvements This is how we understand and operate dynamic security: - Designing organization and prison environment to influence inmates’ behavior - Obtaining a high level of interaction among staff and inmates - Giving expectations through case management and a motivational system - Assessing and managing risk - Opening prison to community keeping inmates in contact with social environment
We haven’t had an actual implementation project on a dynamic security. The Criminal Sanctions Agency’s security guidelines state that dynamic security means better perception skills when we work with inmates.What risks or challenges have you identified or experienced and how have you managed to resolve these?
We haven’t studied that matter.What benefits have you gained?
It is easier to observe changes regarding the prisoners when we understand the importance of dynamic security.What are the lessons learnt that you would like to share with us?
We have not studied the matter properly. We hope your pilot project is successful.
There are one imprisonment place in Latvia where dynamic security has been implemented – Olaine Addiction Centre in Olaine prison (Latvian Prison Hospital). The staff was trained in 2016, but the actual work with inmates started only at the end of 2016. The principles of dynamic security in Latvia are being implemented gradually, simultaneously with the development of imprisonment place infrastructure. However, the principles of dynamic security, although partly, are being implemented also in the other imprisonment places.What risks or challenges have you identified or experienced and how have you managed to resolve these?
Dynamic security was implemented in Olaine Addiction Centre (designed to hold 200 prisoners) established for realizing addiction treatment programmes for prisoners with addictions. A challenge is to change the prisoner's attitude, because the programme is carried out by applying the community principle. We are improving the selection process of prisoners with addictions in imprisonment places, so that more motivated prisoners are sent to the Addiction Centre.What benefits have you gained?
Improved staff communication with prisoners, based on positive changes and trust, thus leading to changes in prisoner's thinking and attitude, incl. stopping to use addictive substances.What are the lessons learnt that you would like to share with us?
We are ready to share our experience about implementing dynamic security in Olaine Addiction Centre.
Yes. In all our prisons. Dynamic security is an essential element in the way we work and it has been for many years.What risks or challenges have you identified or experienced and how have you managed to resolve these?
Staff must be able to balance the different facets of the work. It is time-consuming.What benefits have you gained?
Dynamic Security is an important element in establishing a high level of security. Staff presence, visibility and close contact with inmates gives a nuanced knowledge of the individual inmate, which again enhances individual based measures. It also reduces conflicts, contrabands etc.What are the lessons learnt that you would like to share with us?
The notion of dynamic security has been present throughout the Norwegian Correctional Service for decades. It was, however, not until the early 1990s the term dynamic security was adopted from England and taken into everyday use. In 1997, the concept of personal contact officers was introduced, which means that all inmates have an officer who has a special responsibility for sentence planning, case processing, personal problems and challenges etc. This new role created a strengthening of professionalism in the relation between officers and prisoners.What risks or challenges have you identified or experienced and how have you managed to resolve these?
The challenge is finding the right balance between a respectful and professional relationship between the inmate and staff and security. It is extremely important that the relationship between staff and inmates is kept on a strictly professional level and does not evolve into personal friendship. Unfortunately, we have had some experiences when borders have been transgressed. Through their training, though, our prison staff should be well equipped to handle this challenge.What benefits have you gained?
The benefit in short term is a safer and ordered prison, in long term a safer society with less crime. Dynamic security entitles our staff to observe, analyse and act on changes in for example the inmates’ individual and/or group behaviour. Thus, the usage of DS enables prison staff to “know what is going on” within the prison and with the inmates. This knowledge is pivotal in intelligence and risk assessment. In addition to ensuring safety, security and good order, establishing a respectful and professional relationship between staff and inmates also contributes to rehabilitation and preparation for release.What are the lessons learnt that you would like to share with us?
Dynamic security expands the role of the Prison Officer. They are not merely prison guards in the old-fashioned sense of the word, but they have a key role in making the inmates wanting to choose to live a life free of crime after completing their sentence. We look upon them as “agents of change”. This expansion of the role of prison staff, however, means that more training and education is necessary. In the Norwegian Correctional Service, we put a lot of emphasis on giving our staff a proper training and recruits have to undergo a two-year education, where the consciousness about ethics, attitudes and a humanistic approach, plays a central role. The University College of Norwegian Correctional Service, which is the only place in Norway you can train to become a prison officer, has devoted employees to the field of dynamic security. This expanded role of prison staff also makes work in the correctional service more interesting and rewarding. It is important to note, however that dynamic security alone is not sufficient to ensure a healthy and safe prison environment. Dynamic security must be backed by a serious disciplinary code for dealing with bad behavior, and sanctions must be a part of the system. The security "recipe" of the Norwegian Correctional Service consists of a mixture of dynamic, static and organisational means and measures.
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In Croatian prisons, enforcement of the prison sentence is based on rehabilitation approach, which assumes individualization of punishment through implementation of individual sentence plan for each prisoner and implementation of general and special treatment programs (rehabilitation programs). All prison staff working directly with a prisoner (responsible for treatment, security, work, education etc.) cooperate to enforce and assess individual sentence plan and to exchange information and expert opinions about prisoners on daily basis. Such approach, which promotes the concept of dynamic security, is applied in all prisons and penitentiaries.What risks or challenges have you identified or experienced and how have you managed to resolve these?
Security department officials are one of the most important factors of dynamic security as, without the doubt, they actualize most contacts with prisoners in all activities in prison or penitentiary during 24 hours. Behaviour of these officials and their own perception of the state in correctional institution represent relevant contribution to the psychosocial climate. For that reason, their permanent education and training plays crucial role in achieving dynamic security.What benefits have you gained?
On the other hand, security department officials contribute to a sense of safety through the process of new and development of already existing competencies. Tendencies towards incident behaviour is decreased through cooperation and respect of the model of unique action towards prisoners.What are the lessons learnt that you would like to share with us?
In these terms, totality of actions and work of staff is defined by regulations supporting principles of dynamic security. Bearing in mind the effects of organization of working processes in this way, we can conclude that they result in development of positive psychosocial climate in correctional institutions, more quality working conditions and decreasing all risks connected to occurrence of incidents.
The Irish Prison Service has a long history of use of dynamic security.Our definition and understanding of the term differ a little to that used by the Lithuanian Service. The concept and practice is applied across our entire estate and across all prison types, High Security, Medium Security and Open Centres (low security) we cannot define a precise date as we do not hold a formal dynamic security model, rather our culture is that of prisoner engagement with our officers working daily in close contact with prisoners and building up professional relationships with them, which in turn lends itself to improved knowledge of their habits and improved security. Our officers are not armed.What risks or challenges have you identified or experienced and how have you managed to resolve these?
No specific challenges have been noted. On occasion officer/prisoner relationships can become too friendly (reduces dynamic security). This is monitored by line managers and also addressed in officers basic training. In contrast any alck of engagement usually increases level of prisoner dissatisfaction and increases complaints.What benefits have you gained?
Increased officer/prisoner interaction leading to better knowledge of prisoner habits and associations (gangs etc..) good dynamic security can make prisons safer for officers and can help reduce officer manning levels required to operate some areas of prisons. It can make the officers job less stressful, but can also slightly increase concern in the early stages about close continual contact. This will be a culture change for any service following this model of engagement. It also returns gains in prisoner engagement in rehabilitative services and education and industrial training areas. Most notably it increases officers knowledge of prisoners in general and lends itself to increases security awareness amongst our officersWhat are the lessons learnt that you would like to share with us?
Its vital to give your officers the correct skills and training and address any concerns they may have in advance of moving into this area. Not all staff are suited to this level of engagement, some will be reluctant to change to this model, special selection of staff might be advisable in the early stages of your programme until it becomes a cultural norm.
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