Welcome to the EuroPris Knowledge Management System. The table below shows questions and responses from European National Agencies. Select a question for more information or use the filters on the left to narrow down questions based on Agency or Category.
Want to ask a question? Please read our guidance information found here: Submitting a KMS Question← Back Search KMS
This content is only available to registered members of EuroPris.
Constructs • Designed for persistent offenders, with a specific focus on addressing the poor problem solving skills typical of this particular group. • There are 4 stages to the programme: motivation, problem solving, skill acquisition and relapse prevention. Moving Forward Making Changes • Targeted at offenders who have committed sexual offences and who have been assessed as medium or above using the Stable and Acute (SA07) Risk Assessment. • Rolling format design with essential and optional modules that are tailored to the individual’s specific treatment needs based on what individuals require. • Optional modules include: Social Support, Relationship Skills, Thinking Skills, Healthy Sexual Functioning. Female Offending Behaviour Programme (FOBP • Developed specifically for violent/non-violent female offenders. An in-depth cognitive behavioural programme targeting criminogenic need and improvement of well-being. • Rolling format design with mandatory and optional stages that can be tailored to individual needs using a process of collaborative formulation (with the participant) to determine optional stages required/relevant. • Example treatment goals: increase insight into offending pathways, challenge thinking patterns, develop self-management and relapse prevention plans. Substance Related Offending Behaviour Programme (SROBP) • Designed to provide the opportunity for medium and high risk offenders to address their substance-related offending behaviour. • Rolling format design with essential and optional modules that are tailored to the individual’s specific treatment needs based on what individuals require. • Optional modules include: Motivation, Cravings, Support, Coping Strategies, Challenging Unhelpful Thoughts, Interpersonal Skills, Self-esteem, Managing Emotions, Improving Relationships, Victim Empathy, Lifestyle Modification. Self-Change Programme • Designed specifically for offenders at risk of future violent re-offending. A history of violent convictions and a lifetime pattern of violence are pre-requisites for participation on this programme. • Targeted at the adult, male population. • Modules explore offender's use of violence and challenge their motivation and reasons for violence and teach skills to assist individuals to replace violence with more pro-social behaviours. Controlling Anger Regulating Emotions (CARE) • Designed specifically for those who experience difficulties managing negative emotions. • Whilst the most common negative emotion is anger, others are explored. The programme identifies why people experience these emotions and introduces ways of controlling emotional arousal and a variety of skills to deal more effectively with anger-provoking situations. Youth Justice Programme • A rolling programme which targets general offending behaviour in medium-high risk 16-21 year old offenders. • There are essential modules required for behavioural analysis and plans upon release • There are optional modules which are used to directly target individual treatment needs and include: anger management, car crime, developing positive relationships, emotional management, fire-setting, problem solving, resisting peer pressure, substance misuse, and violence. • The programme is tailored to be responsive to the age group and as such incorporates games, DVD’s, exercises and practical tasks to enhance learning.Do you evaluate client's risks and needs before engaging him into resocialisation program?
The Generic Programmes Assessment attempts to remedy some of the problems with the single assessments approach. By completing one in-depth assessment exploring general programmes needs instead of several shorter assessments exploring the need for specific programmes, the assessor can collate all the information required to devise a sequenced interventions plan for the prisoner in question. Not only does this approach support greater efficacy in meeting the individual’s needs, but it also requires less resources in terms of staff time.How is the staff of behaviour program management formed and trainers selected?
Staff Selection, Training & Development a Programmes staff must be rigorously selected: • Programmes Officers have been successful at a local trawl, and must have been selected by managers who have adequate knowledge of the programme delivery process; • Programme Officers recruited post-2011 must have been successful via the National Programmes Assessment Centre (NPAC) • Supervisors and Treatment Managers have been selected on the basis that they have the relevant skills and experience of programme delivery. b Selection processes for programme staff are recorded and are transparent. c Programme staff must be properly trained: • Programmes staff have successfully completed the nationally approved training events prior to delivering, supervising, or training any group work programme. d A record of staff training must be maintained. e All programme staff must have a development plan that is linked in with PPMSHow long is the education process about program leading for young program leaders, what is included in the education process?
As above.Do you monitor program leaders and what are the monitoring principles?
Programme Staff are Appropriately & Adequately Supported in Their Role a Procedures are in place to support facilitators and prevent burnout resulting from the pressures of delivery: • Programme staff receive support and regular supervision during the course of the programme. Supervision sessions are provided (and must be attended) in accordance with the relevant Management Manual and to the rate specified; • Staff receive any counselling specified in the programme design. Whilst not applicable to all programmes, where relevant, staff must attend external personal support counselling sessions in accordance with programme guidance; • Where applicable, programme staff must not be placed in a situation where they become damaged by over-exposure to sex offender and/or violent offender treatment. All programme staff must take suitable breaks between programmes. b Where appropriate, similar procedures to those listed in (a), above, are in place for supervisors, specifically, the opportunity to attend counselling sessions, as per the programme design, and the facility to provide for breaks from a programme. c Those working in programmes should attend an annual 'healthy functioning' interview carried out by their line manager. The purpose of this is to gauge their well-being, provide support, explore (and identify) strategies for self-care and, if need be, consider whether a period out of the delivery forum would be beneficial. d The facility exists to ensure that, where appropriate, a break from the Programmes team can be accommodated. e Procedures are in place to manage the de-selection of staff from programme delivery, and de-briefing is offered to any programme staff who are withdrawn from programme delivery.Do you evaluate program effectiveness and quality?
Each programme manual should include a logic model that will describe in detail the inputs and throughputs required to deliver the outputs and outcomes, as well as any dependencies that may influence service delivery. In describing outputs, programme designers should provide theoretical justification for selecting certain learning components over others; explain how and why the delivery of these modules is expected to contribute to desired outcomes and where evidence permits rank the components by their relative importance in attaining the targeted behaviours. A logic model begins by identifying the key factors necessary to implement programmes: funding, technical and personnel requirements (inputs). These, in combination with local resources in implementation sites, yield a set of services (outputs) that is expected to lead to short- and long-term outcomes. Assessing short-term outcomes is important as these measures can give an earlier indication of likely reductions in reoffending and highlight the mechanisms by which change in reoffending has occurred. Client characteristics such as employability and accommodation needs, and levels of substance abuse are included in the model as external factors that may influence the outputs and outcomes that are delivered by the programme. The model also takes into account the context in which programmes are delivered including level of service demand, stakeholder engagement and service values as these external factors can have a significant impact upon outcomes. The value of the logic model approach is that it describes in graphical terms how a set of services is expected to improve client outcomes and, in doing so, helps evaluators tease out the stages at which it would be appropriate to gather data to assess programme effectiveness. When reporting outcome evaluations, evaluators should draw on the logic model’s assumptions about how change will occur to explain outcomes and where possible identify the components which had the greatest impact.If possible, please provide contact details – an e-mail address, phone number – to a person we can contact regarding more specific information about correction and rehabilitation programs and/or possible experience exchange visit?
In the first instance contact: [email protected]
In 2017 in imprisonment places eight resocialisation programmes are being carried out. In these programmes are involved detainees and inmates. In addition, both women and men can take part in the resocialisation programmes. In 2016 in resocialisation programmes were involved imprisoned persons that are 14–17 years old (6% of the total number of persons involved in resocialisation programmes), 18–25 years old (20% of the total number of persons involved in resocialisation programmes), and 26 years and older (74% of the total number of persons involved in resocialisation programmes).Do you evaluate client's risks and needs before engaging him into resocialisation program?
Yes. Inmates are involved in programmes after the risk assessment (using appropriate risk and needs assessment instruments).How is the staff of behaviour program management formed and trainers selected?
To select the programme leaders and trainers of resocialisation programmes, Latvian Prison Administration (hereinafter – LPA) Resocialisation department prepares appropriate request to imprisonment places, pointing out criteria, based on which every imprisonment place nominates their candidates to manage a resocialisation programme. Programme leader/trainer selection criteria depends on the content of the particular programme. However, there are universal conditions, e.g. good communication skills, knowledge about group dynamic, desire to learn the subject matter, highly developed skills to work in a team with a colleague.How long is the education process about program leading for young program leaders, what is included in the education process?
Programme management training course length and content depends on the content of the resocialisation programme. On average, the trainings are 3–5 days long. Trainings are lead by specialists who are eligible to prepare programme leaders/trainers. They can be officials (employees) from the LPA central board, LPA structural units and other State and Municipality establishments.Do you monitor program leaders and what are the monitoring principles?
Resocialisation programme leaders are monitored when carrying out the work evaluation of imprisonment place Resocialisation department. Also, experience exchange events or colleague consultations are organised for resocialisation programme leaders, during which it is possible to get information about what has been done in the field of resocialisation programme implementation and improve this process.Do you evaluate program effectiveness and quality?
Resocialisation programme effectiveness for the first time will be studied within the framework of the European Social Fond Project No. 22.214.171.124/16/I/001 "Raising the efficiency of resocialization system".If possible, please provide contact details – an e-mail address, phone number – to a person we can contact regarding more specific information about correction and rehabilitation programs and/or possible experience exchange visit?
Latvian Prison Administration Resocialisation department senior inspector Natalja Solodovnika, e–mail: [email protected], t. +371 67290174.
HMPPS have 24 Intervention programmes across five main target groups; Cognitive & Motivational, Recovery Focused, Violence & Psychopathy, Sexual Offending & Extremism.Do you evaluate client's risks and needs before engaging him into resocialisation program?
Offenders are assessed in respect of their risk and need for allocation to all HMPPS programmes.How is the staff of behaviour program management formed and trainers selected?
A facilitator assessment centre, short interview is undertaken with all potential future programmes staff. Selected staff are then asked to successfully complete a schedule of training.How long is the education process about program leading for young program leaders, what is included in the education process?
New facilitator programmes training is normally around two weeks, followed by a supported and supervised period of programme delivery.Do you monitor program leaders and what are the monitoring principles?
To monitor integrity of the programme, sessions are recorded, and a selection watched by a treatment manager. This is done objectively against a Core Competency Framework, which describes best practice, and the guidance for the session. Feedback is given to facilitators at regular intervals to encourage development.Do you evaluate program effectiveness and quality?
Quality of programmes is monitored using the Interventions Integrity Framework (IIF), which provides feedback at a site level for all programmes run. This operates over a two year cycle, with feedback given twice within this.If possible, please provide contact details – an e-mail address, phone number – to a person we can contact regarding more specific information about correction and rehabilitation programs and/or possible experience exchange visit?
[email protected] – HMPPS Business Team
This content is only available to registered members of EuroPris.
Yes, each client is assesed emedieatley on arrival to prison or the probation office. The assesment, RNR, helps us to find the most suitable program for the client, based on his or her needs and ability to respond to it.How is the staff of behaviour program management formed and trainers selected? How long is the education process about program leading for young program leaders, what is included in the education process? Do you monitor program leaders and what are the monitoring principles? Do you evaluate program effectiveness and quality? If possible, please provide contact details – an e-mail address, phone number – to a person we can contact regarding more specific information about correction and rehabilitation programs and/or possible experience exchange visit?
Rehabilitation programs (group and individual psychosocial treatment): special treatment programs for: drug addicts (Modified therapeutic community and CB program PORTOs) alcohol addicts (Modified therapeutic community and CB program TALK) sex offenders (CB program PRIKIP) violent offenders (Agression Replacement Training and NAS – program for violent offenders) offenders in traffic (prevention program and intervention program) parenthood program: „Prisoner as a parent” enhancing social skills: Social Skills Training (JUS-TSV) Experts to apply risk assessment and psychosocial interventions: psychologists, social pedagogues, and social workersDo you evaluate client's risks and needs before engaging him into resocialisation program?
Yes we do through the Diagnostic Center.How is the staff of behaviour program management formed and trainers selected?
Trainers are trained in the line with their interests, educational backgroud and they are provided with the sopecific trainings for every psychosocial rehabilitation program.How long is the education process about program leading for young program leaders, what is included in the education process?
It depands on the specific program – from 2 – 15 days of trainings.Do you monitor program leaders and what are the monitoring principles?
Yes, we have regular supervision meetingsDo you evaluate program effectiveness and quality?
Yes we do. We have the Unit for statistic analyses and evaluation of special treatment programs.If possible, please provide contact details – an e-mail address, phone number – to a person we can contact regarding more specific information about correction and rehabilitation programs and/or possible experience exchange visit?
The Danish Prison and Probation Service (DPPS) have 6 programs: Anger Management: for persons who sometimes lose control over their temper og feel bottled-up because they are having difficulties expressing themselves The Cognitive Skills Program : for persons who need help with problem solving, creative thinking, communication and restraining emotions Booster: a follow up to the Cognitive Skills Program Breaking with crime: the program gives knowledge and skills which can increase ones motivation and possibilities for positive change directed towards a crime free lifestyle. Violence Prevention Program: for persons who need new methods and tools that can help them coping with situations and provocations that in their past could result in violence Vinn: a dialogue and motivational program for women where the target is for them to achieve increased self-knowledge and new social skills directed towards a crime free lifestyle.Do you evaluate client's risks and needs before engaging him into resocialisation program?
Risk and needs are assessed using the standardized and evidence based risk/needs assessment tool LS/RNR. LS/RNR is implemented in all Danish prisons and in the Probation Service. Cognitive programs are primarily offered to persons who score medium to very high in the LS/RNR assessment.How is the staff of behaviour program management formed and trainers selected?
Recruitment and selection Applicants who are in consideration to be educated trainers are invited to an assessment interview. Prior to the interview they receive a competency questionnaire (Saville & Holdsowrth Ltd (SHL) called the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ)) and a verification test (SHL Verify Ability Test). The 1½-2 hours assessment interview is based on the questionnaire and test results and the interview is conducted from an interview guide developed by cognitive program consultants of the Danish Prisons and Probation Service (DPPS) in cooperation with the DPPS recruitment team. At the assessment a high score on empathy is required and the applicant must show psychological knowledge/competencies and interest in analyzing and understanding people. Furthermore, it is essential that the applicant is capable of and desires to work in a guiding and structured manner. Strong tendencies towards perfectionism is another focus point as this character trait often results in burn-out or trainers not being able to uphold the necessary motivation. An optimistic and solution-oriented approach is preferred. Finally it is assessed how the applicant recognizes feedback from supervision. Self-knowledge and self-reflection are important parameters in the assessment.How long is the education process about program leading for young program leaders, what is included in the education process?
Education in the cognitive rehabilitation programs of the DPPS is conducted based on the following basic model: • 3-10 days basic theoretical and practical training • Completion of 1 full program-course with clients. Supervision/feedback is provided by the program consultant to the trainee trainer • A 2 day course based on the experience gained from this program-course • Completion of a second program-course with clients. Supervision/feedback is provided • Individual assessment prior to certification • Certification • Continuous post education training and quality assessment according to program guidelines. Common to all cognitive programs is close supervision/feedback from program consultants during the entire period of training. The continuous post education and quality assessment primarily consists of: • A 3 day training course in Motivational Interviewing • A 3 day training course in cognitive theory • Group supervision (2 days per year) targeted at the relevant program • A 2 days summit for all program leaders and program consultants about the cognitive programs of the DPPS • A personal supervision/feedback session every year based on video recording of the trainer performing a program-session with clients.Do you monitor program leaders and what are the monitoring principles?
Trainers receive close supervision and feedback during training. Approximately 40-50 % of the program-sessions, they are required to perform with clients as part of the training, are reviewed by program consultants. The consultant is either present during the session or give supervision and feedback based on video recordings of the sessions.Do you evaluate program effectiveness and quality?
Evaluation is performed based on questionnaires that clients are required to complete before and after participating in the program. The results of the questionnaires are reviewed by a program consultant who assures the quality and gives feedback to the trainer based on the results. Additionally the data from the questionnaires are used in an annual report regarding the cognitive rehabilitation programs in DPPS.If possible, please provide contact details – an e-mail address, phone number – to a person we can contact regarding more specific information about correction and rehabilitation programs and/or possible experience exchange visit?
The following correctional programmes are used in Sweden’s Prison and Probation Service: • One-to-One (OTO), an individual programme addressing general criminal behaviour (developed by Philip Priestley) • Enhanced Thinking Skills (ETS), a group programme addressing general criminal behavior (developed by the Prison and Probation Service of England and Wales) • Break the criminality, a group programme addressing general criminal behaviour (developed by Sweden’s Prison and Probation Service) • Entrance, an individual programme addressing violent behavior, also used for helping offenders leaving organized crime (developed by Sweden’s Prison and Probation Service) • Violence Prevention Program (VPP), a group programme addressing violent behavior (developed by the Correctional Service of Canada) • Pulse, a group programme addressing violent behavior (developed by Sweden’s Prison and Probation Service) • The Domestic Violence Programme, an individual programme for male and female offenders using violence in intimate relations (developed by Sweden’s Prison and Probation Service) • Integrated Domestic Abuse Programme (IDAP), a group programme for men beating their female partner (developed by the Prison and Probation Service of England and Wales, inspired by the community based intervention developed in the Domestic Abuse Intervention Project in Duluth) • National Sex Offender Treatment, a group/individual programme addressing sexual crime (developed by the Correctional Service of Canada) • Programme for Reducing Individual Substance Misuse (PRISM), an individual programme addressing substance abuse (developed by Philip Priestley) • The Offender Substance Abuse Program (OSSAP), a group programme addressing substance abuse (developed by the Correctional Service of Canada) • 12-step programme, a group programme for substance abuse • Win, a group program for female offenders (developed by the Prison and Probation Service of Norway) • Reasoning & Rehabilitation 2 ADHD (R&R2ADHD), a programme for offenders with ADHD-symptoms (developed by Susan Young and Robert Ross) • Relapse Prevention (RP), a booster-programme addressing substance abuse, general criminality or violence (the programme is developed by Sweden’s Prison and Probation Service and is an adaption of the RP-intervention used in Project MATCH) In addition Motivational Interviewing (MI) is used to motivate participation in correctional programmes.Do you evaluate client's risks and needs before engaging him into resocialisation program?
We assess all clients risk, needs and responsivity (RNR) upon arrival in prison or in the probation office with a structured instrument that is constructed by and tailored for the SPPS. The instrument is called Risk Need Responsivity- Assessment (RNR-A) [RBM-B in Swedish]. The results of the assessment is guiding allocation to a suitable programme.How is the staff of behaviour program management formed and trainers selected?
The staff working with treatment programs are often organized in specialized teams. They are supervised and managed by a first line manager at a prison or probation office. Depending on the type of program that the staff is going to administered, we have different requirements concerning their background education and competences. Some programs can only be administered by psychologists and/or therapists but in general the programs can be adminstered by main grade prison officers and probation officers. Trainers are mostly recruited from program facilitators, facilitators with a deep understanding and experience of the treatment programs as well as an ability to train colleagues and giving feed back.How long is the education process about program leading for young program leaders, what is included in the education process?
The process for becoming a facilitator (programme leader) in the treatment programmes in the Swedish Prison and Probation Service is a process with several stages; Stage 1. Basic training 12 weeks. Content: a. One week of training on Risk, Need and Responsivity incl. lectures on offending behaviour, violence and drugs. b. One week of training in Motivational interviewing incl. training in a short manual based motivational intervention (MIK) followed by three weeks of practicing the intervention with clients during which the facilitators are monitored and supervised by trainers using audiotapes. c. One week on Cognitive Behavioural Therapy theoriesand one week of training in a manual based Relapse prevention intervention program followed by five weeks of practicing the Relapse prevention intervention program with clients during which the facilitators are monitored and supervised by trainers using videotapes. If the program facilitator is certified in the above Basic training, the facilitator can proceed to the next stage. Stage 2. Specific facilitator training 2 weeks. Content: a. Practicing Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. Eight days of training (including one day of home assignment) focused on practicing CBT with both individuals and groups. The facilitators work in smaller groups and learn techniques used in CBT such as problem solving, functional analysis, self control, role play, cognitive restructuring, social skills etc. b. SPSS treatment program. Two to six days of training in different SPSS treatment programmes. After stage 2 a, the facilitator is able to apply for training in all of the different treatment programmes (with some exceptions). The programme facilitators are monitored and supervised by trainers until they reach a certain level of quality in their performance when they will be certified.Do you monitor program leaders and what are the monitoring principles?
Yes, we monitor our facilitators of programs (see question 4 above). During the training the programme facilitators are introduced to the documents used for monitoring and supervision. The principles for monitoring are that the facilitator, as soon as possible after being trained in one of the treatment programmes, starts the process of videotaping the sessions and doing self-observations on performance. We have a computerized system where the facilitators can download their sessions in an individual folder that the trainers have access to. Every programme facilitator has a personal supervisor (group programs are run by two facilitators that normally is sharing the same trainer). The facilitator sends the self-observations on performance to the supervisor and the trainer fills in his/hers comments and evaluation on performance. In addition to the written communication there are also conversations by telephone ( or sometimes in vivo) between the facilitator and the trainer/supervisor. The document used for self- observation by the facilitator and feed back from the trainer is the same. The document is divided into three different categories; i. CBT-techniques (agenda, structure, rational, modelling, role play, social skills, functional analysis etc.). ii. Program Integrity (following the manuals, adopting the program to the clients Needs, Responsivity and motivation for change etc.). iii. Facilitator skills (respect and empathy, active listening to understand and validate the client, using problem solving in regards to any relational problems between facilitator and client, emphasis client autonomy and worth, engaging the client in the program etc.). When the facilitator meets the standards set he/she can be certified. The certificate is valid for four years during which the facilitator must be active as a facilitator of programs. At any time during the four years the trainer/supervisor can make a request to the facilitator to provide a taped session for control purposes.Do you evaluate program effectiveness and quality?
Several accredited programmes effects on recidivism have been evaluated through statistical analysis using register-data merged from a broad range of national registers (where clients are being followed up after release from prison or after probation). Clients participating in programmes are compared with controls not participating in programmes. Control subjects are drawn drawn from cohorts of more than 100,000 subjects using propensity score matching procedures. The programme effects, or risk of recidivism are calculated using Cox-regression (to account for different follow-up periods and background variables). In addition to evaluations of programme effects on recidivism, psychometric questionnaires are administered when a client is entering and have completed a programme (and a client satisfaction questionnaire is also administered for all clients completing a programme to evaluate participant’s experience). This gives an opportunity to find out more about changes in psychometric properties, characteristics of different client groups and identifying subgroups that benefits more when participating in specific programmes. The video monitoring procedures that are described in the education section above are also an important aspect of quality assurance.If possible, please provide contact details – an e-mail address, phone number – to a person we can contact regarding more specific information about correction and rehabilitation programs and/or possible experience exchange visit?
[email protected] +46 (0)70 218 7575
The Norwegian Correctional Service has developed a quality control system in order to provide and share information about the programs being used in the various prisons and probation offices. The system provides for a quality control as to the contents of the various programs, carried out by the University College of Norwegian Correctional Service KRUS. In total, 135 applications were received for 2017 from 40 separate units on 59 different programs. The quality system was developed to: - monitor and control the quality of program activity in the Correctional service; - visualise, document, share information about and recommend activities; - stimulate and contribute to planned working on systematically organised and implemented approved program activity. Through the central quality system, experience and knowledge is gathered which is accessible to all employees, thus contributing to openness and a common conceptual use.Do you evaluate client's risks and needs before engaging him into resocialisation program?
The Norwegian Correctional service makes use of a data-based assessment tool called BRIK. It is used for mapping out individual criminogenic and other needs as well as strengths, competences, skills etc. One of the possible outcomes of this assessment process is a recommendation to the case-manager to consider this person for participation in a specific program or category of programs. Possible further risks and their consequences for serving the sentence are dependent on individual factors and are assessed by those employees directly involved with the offender in question, mostly on a clinical basis and not standardised in a statistics-based instrument.How is the staff of behaviour program management formed and trainers selected?
Staff and trainers involved in program activity are selected at the local unit-level by its management. For a number of programs courses for trainers are provided centrally by KRUS and the management at the unit- or regional level decides who will participate.How long is the education process about program leading for young program leaders, what is included in the education process?
Courses for trainers in the different programs may vary in length. Typically, it takes between three and five days to obtain a trainer certificate, and for most programs follow-up meetings are held in order for trainers to be able to exchange knowledge and experiences.Do you monitor program leaders and what are the monitoring principles?
Privacy legislation does not allow for filming or recording actual program sessions with offenders present, but trainers may receive guidance by KRUS or colleagues when requested or needed.Do you evaluate program effectiveness and quality?
At present there are no evaluations in process, but these have been carried out in the past both by KRUS and by externals like universities, university colleges or other research institutions and it is expected that this will happen again in the future. Some programs are or have been evaluated on the initiative of the local management, and in some cases evaluations in the form of before-and-after tests occur in connection with certain program deliveries.If possible, please provide contact details – an e-mail address, phone number – to a person we can contact regarding more specific information about correction and rehabilitation programs and/or possible experience exchange visit?
Hege Bøhm Ottar, e-mail: [email protected]
In Finland programs can be divided into general offending programs, the programs aiming to prevent recidivism, which are meant for offenders who have committed specific offences such as violent or sexual offences. Addition we have substance abuse rehabilitation programs. General offending programme: • Behaviour-Interviewing-change (BSF)-programme The manual is an application of MI in five semi structured sessions and in total a driver's guide through the entire MI landscape. The aims are increase practitioner skills and increase probability of influencing clients to change by going through the manual. Participant can choose what is the biggest problem, what she/he like to change and 80 % like that it is substance abuse. Programme was designed and developed by Åke Farbring in Sweden. - 6 sessions, 1½ hour each. - Used in prison and community service. - Accredited 2008. Substance abuse rehabilitation programs: • Anti-addiction®-information programme Information and motivation group programme which aims to teach offenders the skills required to reduce or stop substance misuse. This programme was designed and developed for the prison by rehabilitation institution Tyynelä Development Centre, Finland. - The programme length in 4-6 weeks. - 1-3 sessions per week, 75 minutes each. - Used in prison. - Accredited 2002. • Behind the Bars programme This is a cognitive-behavioural programme based on principles of cognitive behavioural theory. Programme aim to teach offenders the skills required reducing or stopping substance misuse. This programme was designed and developed for Järvenpää Addiction Hospital, Finland. - 120-hour-long course. - Used in prison. - Accredited 2016. • Community treatment programme Community treatment programme delivered in a therapeutic community milieu. Prisoners are encouraged to learn new behaviours, attitudes and values reinforced through peer and community modelling and support. - The programme length in all 6- 12 months. - Used in Helsinki prison and Turku prison. - Accredited 2013. Violence programmes • Anger Management Course programme Anger Management Course aims to reduce aggressive behavioural through teaching social skills, anger managements techniques and improved moral reasoning. Developed by the Prison Service in England. - 9 sessions, 1½ hour each - Accredited 2007 - Used in community and prison. • Cognitive Self-Change programme Cognitive Self Change Programme designed for adult offenders with a very heavy history of violence who are motivated to change their pattern of behaviour. Consist of 4 blocks. Originally developed by Jack Bush in USA. - The programme length in all 7 months. 3 sessions per week, 75 minutes in length. - Accredited 2013. - Used in prison. Sex Offenders programmes • New Direction programme New Direction programme is an individual program for low and medium risk sex offenders. It is also used as a booster program for offenders who have already been on the STOP-program. The programme is based on cognitive-behavioural theory and on the good lives model of change. The programme was developed by psychologist Nina Nurminen, Finland. - 16 sessions - Used in prison and community service. - Accredited 2014. • Sex Offender Treatment Programme SOTP -programme is for convicted sex offenders. The Programme aims to reduce offending by adult male sex offenders. Addresses a range of offending behavioural challenging thinking patterns used by offenders to execute and justify their behaviours, related to positive, re-offending living. Developed by the Prison Service in England. - The programme length in all 8 months. - Accredited 2003 - Used in Riihimäki prison.Do you evaluate client's risks and needs before engaging him into resocialisation program?
Yes, the enforcement of sentences is a planned and controlled process. The imprisonment process starts from the assessment of each sentenced offender. Based on the assessment, sentenced offenders receive an individual sentence plan. Content of the sentence plan consists of: Risk and needs assessment of the past: - prisoner’s prior criminality, quality of the committed offence(s), length of the sentence; - prisoner’s social conditions, individual needs and resources; - assessment of the prisoner’s working and functioning capacity; - factors that increase the probability of committing new offences; - factors that can decrease the probability of committing new offences; and - factors influencing safety. Risk and needs assessment phase: - the goal is to understand the dynamics of the behaviour and the factors related to the prisoner’s individual growth; - combining and evaluating information, which is gathered from various sources and which can be used to evaluate the prisoner’s abilities, skills, factors restricting development, course of life, personality, values, attitudes, beliefs, etc.; - defining and identifying the prisoner’s individual risks and needs with the help of different assessment methods o risk of recidivism: the probability of criminal behaviour o risk of causing harm: what kind of harm the prisoner may cause to him- or herself, close people, society, other prisoners and staff - reviewing the prisoner’s resources and those abilities that are needed in the implementation of changes; - recognising and identifying those situations, risks and needs, which require guidance to special services; - analysing and comparing the prisoner’s needs and wishes in relation to the services provided by the penal system. Sources of information in risk and needs assessment are documents (e.g. data from other authorities), self-assessment testing, observation monitoring and interview. The assessment centre prepares a sentence plan and describes which matters have to be taken into consideration when working with the prisoner. The goals are recorded in the sentence plan and the prison where the prisoner is placed thinks of ways to achieve the goals. The risks and needs of the clients are assessed at the beginning of enforcement and the influence of the activities on the reduction of the risk of recidivism at the end of enforcement. If possible and with the consent of the client, the knowledge of the co-operation partners is used in the assessment. The situation of the clients has to be assessed before and after the completion of a programme according to consistent criteria drawn up for that purpose. For example Cognitive Self Change Programme is carried out pretest and scoring before the programme and post-test 1-2 months after the end of programme. The programmes have to be targeted according to the assessed needs of the clients and the clients’ participation in a programme has to be systematic, part-time and proceeding according to the need. Clients who really need the programmes are selected to attend them although it would mean longer motivation. Participation in the programmes and other activity necessary to the client are fitted together so that it has the best possible effect on reducing recidivism. It also includes the creation of a necessary rehabilitation continuum during the sentence, when transferring from an enforcement phase to another, and after serving the sentence by using the services of the society.How is the staff of behaviour program management formed and trainers selected?
The most program counselors require e.g. a bachelor’s degree in social work or nursing. The staff of behavior management and trainers requires showing a demonstrated interest in working in corrections and a belief that helping to rehabilitees offenders is a worthy calling. Additional requirements are that before the leading of programme they must complete the basic training of specific programme. People who are really motivated and committed to the work and who start implementing programme activity are selected for basic training. The counselors have to be obligated to attend regular in-service training with adequate resources reserved for it. The personnel have to be suitable for and motivated to carry out programme work. The evaluation criteria for the selection of instructors have to be explicit. The criteria include, among others, the person’s ability to use concepts and methods based on the cognitive-behavioural theory, suitability for leading a group, empathy, supportive working methods, and readiness to receive feedback. The instructors have to be able to use critical and reflexive working methods, which mean a constant evaluation of their own work as well as an ability to see their own work as part of a wider criminal policy entity. An understanding of the clients’ point of view and an ability to assess diversely the clients’ situation are preconditions for working as an instructor. The Training Institute for Prison and Probation Services (RSKK) is a nationwide unit of the Criminal Sanctions Agency. The institute runs degree courses relating to prison and probation services and provides supplementary training for programme work.How long is the education process about program leading for young program leaders, what is included in the education process?
The educational process varies but usually it takes 3-4 years (see paragraph 3).Do you monitor program leaders and what are the monitoring principles?
Yes. The implementation of programme work needs adequate method support. Each instructor is named a method support person who follows the implementation of the program. The aim is to approach the issues related to the implementation of the work with a critical and open view.Do you evaluate program effectiveness and quality?
Yes. The motivation and effectiveness programs used in prisons and community offices must be approved through an accreditation procedure. The programmes used in the criminal sanctions field should have a clear change model which is scientifically proven efficient and which can be measured and assessed. The programmes can be aimed at all types of clients and prisoners with different risk levels. Nevertheless, certain effective programmes should mainly be targeted at high-risk offenders. All programmes developed in the criminal sanctions field in Finland and aimed to influence the thinking and behaviour maintaining criminality have to be reviewed by the expert group of the activity programme accreditation procedure in accordance with the accreditation criteria. The management has to create the conditions for the quality control related to the programmes (assessment, documentation, etc.) in order to ensure the integrity of programmes. In order to implement programmes, the mental and material resources have to be secured. The implementation of programmes requires adequate premises and equipment such as audiovisual equipment. Unfortunately in Finland, there is only a little research on effectiveness at the moment. Therefore, it is important to follow the research on the effectiveness of programme activity carried out in other countries. In the long run, the aim should be to start research on the effectiveness of programme activity also in Finland.If possible, please provide contact details – an e-mail address, phone number – to a person we can contact regarding more specific information about correction and rehabilitation programs and/or possible experience exchange visit?
Contact person: Ms Ulla Knuuti, Senior Specialist, The Criminal Sanctions Agency Email: [email protected] Tel: +358 50 550 8894
This content is only available to registered members of EuroPris.
Supported by the Justice Programme of the European Union