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Our priorities are to give all prisoners, especially the minors and youngsters at least elementary education. With minors and youngsters education is planned as their main occupation during their imprisonment.What educational opportunities do minors and youngsters deprived of liberty have?
At this moment minors and youngsters are taught by the same programme and teachers that proovide education outside the prison in adult secondary schools. Starting from September 2018 we plan to change it by offering the minors the same education programme as minors outside the prison usually receive (at the moment they receive the education progreamme that adults outside the prison receive. Youngsters can also receive vocational education. When they graduate they will receive the same diploma as the students of the same education institution outside the prison (meaning the diploma does not show in any way that the education was received inside a prison)What difficulties are there in organizing the education for minors and youngsters deprived of liberty?
Minors need more help and guidance with their homework so it is often the prison officers who help the young students during after school hours. As it is not officially their duty, sometimes they don't have enough time for it.What does the cooperation between the education and the juvenile justice systems consist of?
Education for the minors and youngsters (as for all prisoners) is provided by ordinary adult secondary schools. Each prison has an agreement with one certain adult school who will provide education in prison. If a minor has trouble in a class (behavioural or learning difficulties)the teacher will contact the prison education coordinator and the officer who is the student's case manager and together they will discuss how to deal with the problem so that the student could continue his/her classes successfully. If it turns out that the minor has medical or psychological reasons for failing in school, he/she can be taught by a special programme that is slightly easier than the common one.How is the specific professionalization of the staff that delivers education for minors and youngsters carried out?
Minors and youngsters are taught by the same teachers who work in secondary schools outside the prison. With homework sometimes ordinary prison officers give a helping hand. And there is also a social pedagogical worker in the minors and youngsters department whose work is to notice minors who are having or making more trouble and give them the assistance they need or direct them to ohter specialists who could help them.
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That they receive an offer of education which is suited for them.What educational opportunities do minors and youngsters deprived of liberty have?
The punishment is the restriction of liberty; no other rights have been removed by the sentencing court. Therefore the sentenced offender has all the same rights as all others who live in Norway. This principle applies regardless of the inmate`s age. Children and young people in Norway have a right and an obligation to complete primary and lower secondary education, and adults are entitled to primary and lower secondary education. Everyone who completes primary and lower secondary education is entitled to upper secondary education qualifying for further studies or a vocation. The Norwegian organization of prisons is based on the import model. The principle of this model is that the prisoners are attended by the same public welfare providers (schools, health care, library etc.) as society at large. Thus, the responsibility for providing education to prisoners lies on the educational sector. The Ministry of Education and Research earmarks funding for prison education. One of the Country Governors holds the position as the national executive agency for educationWhat difficulties are there in organizing the education for minors and youngsters deprived of liberty?
Their level of skills and academic competence may vary, which means that it often is challenging to teach them in groups. In our experience, the learning outcome increases when the education is organized in one to one-sessions with the pupil and the teacher. This learning situation can sometimes be difficult to provide.What does the cooperation between the education and the juvenile justice systems consist of?
See question 2How is the specific professionalization of the staff that delivers education for minors and youngsters carried out?
See question 2
The priorities in the field of the education of minors and youngsters deprived of liberty are graduation and apprenticeship.What educational opportunities do minors and youngsters deprived of liberty have?
The juvenile detainees can complete various school qualifications and various apprenticeship in the prison.What difficulties are there in organizing the education for minors and youngsters deprived of liberty?
The different periods of detention and different intelligence of the detainees are difficulties in the organization of education.What does the cooperation between the education and the juvenile justice systems consist of?
There is a cooperation between state school officials and independent educational association and own teachers. Education offers of educational associations are paid.How is the specific professionalization of the staff that delivers education for minors and youngsters carried out?
The staff are teachers, educators and teachers for professions.
Youngsters placed in a community institution get the guarantee that they comply with compulsory education and that their right to education is guaranteed. This guarantee is secured by the Order of the Flemish Government of 27 June 1990 determining the conditions under which in certain community institutions for observation and education, in reception and orientation centres and in observation centres, embedded in the special youth assistance, compliance with compulsory education can be assured. http://data-onderwijs.vlaanderen.be/edulex/document.aspx?docid=12343What educational opportunities do minors and youngsters deprived of liberty have?
The community institutions have their own team of teachers. They offer youngsters general education, physical education and vocational training. This education system is designed in a process implementation plan and accompanying personnel plan. http://jongerenwelzijn.vonet.be/sites/default/files/docs/pep-onderwijs-gi.pdfWhat difficulties are there in organizing the education for minors and youngsters deprived of liberty?
Education in the community institutions faces several difficulties: - Lengths of stay are very different, ranging from 2 weeks to several months. - The pupil population is very diverse in terms of age, education, field of study, school career, foreknowledge, cognitive skills, interests, ... - Generally, the school career of the pupil population in the community institutions is all but flawless. School fatigue, school shopping, school failure, truancy, school delays and little scholastic perspectives are common. - The diversity in the pupil population makes the alignment with schools and their curriculum harder for each youngster.What does the cooperation between the education and the juvenile justice systems consist of?
The Department of education and training in cooperation with the Youth Welfare Agency finances some 'liaison functions’ between education in the Community institutions and the schools of the youngsters. It's their job to contact the schools of the incarcerated youth, to explore their school situation, and to check which educational goals should be focused on in the Community institution, and whether it is possible to cooperate with the schools involved (e.g. sending hand- and workbooks, exams, tests and tasks...)How is the specific professionalization of the staff that delivers education for minors and youngsters carried out?
In addition to their required diploma of teaching, teachers within the Community institutions get no specific didactic training. They are trained though – as the caretakers – in specific skills adjusted to work in a closed institution (behavioural management programs c.q. Life Space Crisis Intervention, immobilization/physical restriction techniques...)
Priorities in the area of education of juveniles deprived of liberty are to include all new juveniles to carry out educational measures in the educational process in accordance with their abilities and inclinations because education represents a very important segment of the Individual Program of Treatment.What educational opportunities do minors and youngsters deprived of liberty have?
- those who didn't completed elementary school have the possibility of attending a program for education of adults (shortened duration to compensate for the missed time) - training programs (professional training for first occupation) - secondary education in foreign schools with financial support from the family - education of juveniles educated on a special program (elementary school or high school) and it is necessary to continue the same program (in cooperation with the competent institutions).What difficulties are there in organizing the education for minors and youngsters deprived of liberty?
- their inability to persist and advance in the educational process which is the result of repeated failures of education before coming to the Educational Institution - the costs of secondary education are financed by parents or guardians who often do not have the funds, so it is necessary to seek financial assistance from competent institutions outside the judicial system.What does the cooperation between the education and the juvenile justice systems consist of?
The cooperation between the education system outside the Institute (institutions, schools) and the judicial system (the Institute) is good; teaching staff in foreign schools and schools is adjusted to the daily schedule of juvenile offender activities in the Department (organizing lectures, exams, professional practices etc.).How is the specific professionalization of the staff that delivers education for minors and youngsters carried out?
Education of teachers and their professional training is carried out through regular professional training by competent educational institutions.
Our priorities are to increase engagement and educational attainment of those young people in our care in order to achieve our vision of ‘using the time a young person spends in custody to enable them to prepare for a positive future’ http://www.sps.gov.uk/Corporate/Publications/Corporate12.aspx The Scottish Prison Service (SPS) works closely with our contracted learning service providers (Fife College) to progress our national Learning and Skills Strategy that seeks to ensure everyone in our care has “the opportunity to engage in creative and flexible learning that unlocks potential, inspires change and builds individual strength.” http://www.sps.gov.uk/Corporate/Publications/Publication-4017.aspx Although progress in Literacy and Numeracy skills are a key priority, we also ensure that through a broad general approach as detailed in our national ‘Curriculum for Excellence’ (Scottish Curriculum for Excellence). This provides our learners with access to a wide range of project and thematic based learning that promotes the key capacities of: Successful Learners, Confident Individuals, Responsible Citizens and Effective Contributors.What educational opportunities do minors and youngsters deprived of liberty have?
Young people in our care have opportunities to attend formal and informal education in a classroom setting or to achieve vocational qualifications through attendance at activities in vocational workshops. Our college partners deliver contextualised qualifications in core skills in vocational training workshops or through innovative arts activities. Our youth work team plays an important role in building young people’s capacity to engage in education as well as their skills and knowledge, and SPS Inclusion Officers provide individual and small group support for those young people who are most disengaged from learning activities. Young people can also engage with educational activities on a one to one basis in the residential areas, there are also small group work sessions which aim to engage some our most vulnerable young people who require dedicated support. For those who have the academic ability, there are a variety of higher level learning opportunities including access to university degrees. Learning is also co-delivered and co-designed through partnership working led by our contracted learning provider and youth work team. This enables access to a broad range of innovative arts activities and project themed learning.What difficulties are there in organizing the education for minors and youngsters deprived of liberty?
The principal issues are based around engagement in educational provision as many of our young people had previously been excluded from school, exhibited low aspirations or had previous negative experiences of educational study. Work to overcome the barriers to young people’s participation in learning is a key priority for the national establishment. We also ensure that our provision meets the needs of all our population and have introduced a new system of annual educational planning and robust evaluation including feedback and case studies of learners. Moreover, we always ensure that programmes of learning are developed in consultation with young people and that success at any level is always celebrated. In addition, we utilise screening tools and learners ambitions to establish Personal Development Plans (PDP’s) specific learner needs and to ensure that appropriate support and programmes are put in place for the duration of the learner journey. Use of PDP’s and reviews to ensure that learners set and achieve goals throughout their time at Polmont.What does the cooperation between the education and the juvenile justice systems consist of?
Education provision is provided via a contract arrangement with our partner Fife College. This ensures that teaching is delivered by appropriately qualified staff and there is access to a wide-range of educational materials. The college works closely with the SPS Head of Learning & Skills to progress the aims as detailed in our national Learning & Skills Strategy. We also work closely with the Scottish Government education and skills agencies ‘Education Scotland ‘ and Skills Development Scotland. The Scottish Government’s Youth Justice Strategy http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2015/06/2244 is a cross-sectoral endeavour which includes improving the life chances of children and young people in the justice system as one of its three priorities. The Improving Life Chances Implementation Group is chaired by the SPS Professional Advisor on young People. We also have a National Advisory Group for Prison Education with wide-ranging membership including universities to inform and advice on educational development.How is the specific professionalization of the staff that delivers education for minors and youngsters carried out?
Our college partnerships ensures that appropriately qualified staff are matched with learners to facilitate learning at appropriate levels. College staff are subject to a range of ongoing professional development courses and we implement a robust set of quality assurance processes to ensure quality of service delivery. The youth workers are professionally qualified. Importantly, the SPS strategy for young people includes professional development for SPS staff to enable them to understand the learning and development needs of the young people in their care.
In the Correctional Home each minor is obliged to participate in the education process set in a personal plan. When entering into educational process previous knowledge of the minor is taken into account, his wishes and the possibilities of further enrolment. The priorities in the field of education are in particular providing options for minor to perform practical training in the institute (metalworking, carpentry and painting, assistant chef and, in the recent period, gardeners) for the particular professions, as well as the possibility of enrolment during the course of the school year. In Juvenile Prison give the highest priority to the completing of the elementary school, which is also recorded in the personal plan of the prisoner. If a juvenile prisoner has already completed a primary school, we motivate him to enrol in a secondary school program. Prisoners can perform secondary programs, for example gastronomic-hotelier, trader etc. All costs are covered by the Ministry of Education.What educational opportunities do minors and youngsters deprived of liberty have?
In the Correctional Home different programs are underway. Some of them are fully implemented at the institute (assistant in biotechnology and care, woodworker, assistant in technological processes - chef, car maker, and gastronomic hotelier). Individuals are involved in the completion of primary school obligations or if possible for minors to connect with external schools and attend independent education outside the institution. In Juvenile Prison inmates can enter into literacy program, elementary school, secondary school program or enrol in the University program. We also provide them with different National Vocational Qualifications (forklift, welding machine, cook assistant, diet cook, janitor etc.).What difficulties are there in organizing the education for minors and youngsters deprived of liberty?
Correctional Home faces with the lack of motivation by minors, irregularity of attending classes, irregular learning etc. The Juvenile Prison faces spatial constraints and different level of motivation by individuals in different programs. There is a challenge in ensuring a sufficient number of participants in each program, as convicts have different desires and incentives. In the recent past we also faced problems with financing some education programs.What does the cooperation between the education and the juvenile justice systems consist of?
Correctional Home emphasizes on mutual trust, which was created through many years of cooperation with external institutions. In the Juvenile Prison literacy and elementary school education is carried out by the Celje Institute for Adult Education. Their workers come twice a week in the prison, teaching and explaining the learning material to prisoners and providing them with a material for independent studies. When a teacher from the Institute estimates that convict is ready to take an exam, they perform the exam. All high school students complete exams. This means that the inmate is enabled to consult, provide material and then complete the material by himself with the help of the employees in the prison. In most cases prison arrange with the school to carry out the written part of the examination in the prison, while the oral part of the exam is carried outside the prison at the school institution. We also provide individual prisoners with individual expert assistance if we consider that they need itHow is the specific professionalization of the staff that delivers education for minors and youngsters carried out?
In Correctional Home the education of minors is carried out by the employees: two andragogy educators and working instructors in workshops, where minors work and develop work habits, when practical training is carried out. In Juvenile Prison all education is carried out in cooperation with the Institute for Adult Education, secondary schools and faculties. It is in whole performed by pedagogical educations.
Youngsters in imprisonment places are provided with the possibility to finish the general and professional education, minors in imprisonment places are provided with the possibility to finish general education. According with Section 4 of the Education Law, the acquisition of basic education, or the continuation of acquisition of basic education until reaching the age of 18, shall be mandatory. Thus, all minors for whom detention or imprisonment sentence is set, are involved in general education acquirement.What educational opportunities do minors and youngsters deprived of liberty have?
In imprisonment places are implemented the same programmes as outside the imprisonment places, including – providing the possibility to take part in special education programmes. In imprisonment places, education is one of the resocialisation means. After carrying out the inmate's risk and needs assessment, if the inmate needs education, he/she is provided with an opportunity to begin their education. Minors are involved in the education process immediately, continuing their studies in the same grade in which they began or did not finish their studies outside imprisonment place.What difficulties are there in organizing the education for minors and youngsters deprived of liberty?
When organizing the education for minors, difficulties can be caused when a detained minor is transferred for carrying out investigation procedures and other procedural activities, because then the education process is stopped. However, when the minor returns to the Correctional Institution for Juveniles, the studies are resumed. Teachers also work individually to ensure that the minor learns the study subjects. It can also be difficult to organize the education for foreign minors in imprisonment places: 1. Educational establishment does not have the information or the means to assess the previous education of the minor (there is no educational documentation to verify the educational level), 2. Minors that are foreigners do not know Latvian language in the necessary level, thus in the beginning they are offered the opportunity to learn Latvian language.What does the cooperation between the education and the juvenile justice systems consist of?
Legal proceedings are carried out according with the criminal action; however, education is organized according with the normative acts regulating the operation of an educational establishment. Normative acts do not define the cooperation between an educational establishment and the person directing the proceedings, but the cooperation is carried out to the extent possible by conforming the procedural actions to the educational process. Organizing education is made easier by the fact that in Latvia all minors are placed together in the same place. According with regulations set in the Sentence Execution Code of the Republic of Latvia (Section 50.7), convicted persons who have attained eighteen years of age may be left in a juvenile correctional institution until the end of the academic year or the end of the sentence term, but not longer than until they attain twenty-one years of age.How is the specific professionalization of the staff that delivers education for minors and youngsters carried out?
In the Correctional Institution for Juveniles, teachers with pedagogical education implement general education. The teachers the same as all imprisonment place employees who work with minors are trained in the field of protection of the children’s rights.
General education and vocational training.What educational opportunities do minors and youngsters deprived of liberty have?
1. Prison school for general and secondary education 2. Vocational training centre (cook's qualification)What difficulties are there in organizing the education for minors and youngsters deprived of liberty?
Difficult for minors and youngsters to choose between educational establishments. Sometimes they want to switch establisments.What does the cooperation between the education and the juvenile justice systems consist of?
Cooperation is implemented following the procedures on organisation of general education and vocational training for detainees and inmates. Deputy director of the school has daily meetings with prison administration.How is the specific professionalization of the staff that delivers education for minors and youngsters carried out?
The school is responsible for the specific professionalization of the staff.
Our priority is to ensure that every minor and youngster deprived of liberty can access the same educational and training opportunities and on the same conditions, as any other minor or youngster of their age. Therefore, minors under 17 years old as well those older than 17 years old, are offered the compulsory and post-compulsory official education respectively, that is regularly available to everyone. Finally, both age groups are also offered vocational training as the rest of youngsters.What educational opportunities do minors and youngsters deprived of liberty have?
Minors and youngsters deprived of liberty are provided with the same educational opportunities as the rest of minors and youngsters of their age. However, given the specific educational needs that most of the minors held in custodial centers usually have, including high rates of school dropout and absenteeism, the conditions of the educational offer are adjusted to meet their needs. In particular, the ratio of pupils per room and teacher is lower than the ratio usually applicable in regular schools. Also, curricula and programs are tailored to meet the specific educational requirements of the minor or youngster.What difficulties are there in organizing the education for minors and youngsters deprived of liberty?
The activity of juvenile justice centers actually revolves around education and training to a great extent, therefore there aren’t any relevant difficulties to implement and integrate formal and vocational education in the centers’ regular life.What does the cooperation between the education and the juvenile justice systems consist of?
A collaboration agreement was signed by the Department of Education and the Department of Justice with the aim of creating a framework that could ensure that minors and youngsters deprived of liberty, can access the same educational opportunities as every minor or youngster not deprived of liberty. According to this collaboration agreement, the Department of Education is responsible for providing qualified teachers and trainers who are prepared to deliver tailored programs and curricula with pupils held in custodial centers and who very frequently have specific educational needs. This agreement established a steering committee in order to carry out the follow up and evaluation of its implementation, so that needs for improvement or adjustment of the agreement are identified and further implemented.How is the specific professionalization of the staff that delivers education for minors and youngsters carried out?
On a regular basis the Department of Education organizes specialized training for teachers and educators working in custodial centers. It also fosters room for discussion and coordination amongst them with the aim of preparing these practitioners to better understan and address the specific educational needs of minors held in custody.
The scope of educational measures ranges from pre-elementary basic education to secondary school education with officially certified exams. Sixth-form (A-level) courses are not offered. In total, some 139 participants can be included in the various courses at any one time.What educational opportunities do minors and youngsters deprived of liberty have?
A large number of participants are put into training and apprenticeships for typical trades (i.e. bricklayer/construction worker, painter & decorator, metalworker, auto mechanic (incl. mechatronics), hairdresser, cook and cutting machine operator). Apprenticeships can be wholly or partially completed with officially recognized certification. Partial qualification is also offered for building cleaning, logistics & storage and catering services. Up to 202 participants can be included in vocational courses at any one time.What difficulties are there in organizing the education for minors and youngsters deprived of liberty?
Difficulties encountered in the provision of the above courses include the financing of courses offered and employment of staff from external agencies, who must be integrated in the security framework of a prison environment.What does the cooperation between the education and the juvenile justice systems consist of?
Our youth prison is legally bound to provide inmates with education and vocational training. Inmate’s progress reports are continually developed in collaboration with all departments and the inmates themselves. Analyses and goal setting in this context form the backbone of collaboration between said departments, including the teachers.How is the specific professionalization of the staff that delivers education for minors and youngsters carried out?
The prison-specific extra requirements for teachers working in the prison are imparted in the course of a six-week familiarization phase, which includes all major areas and departments (i.e. administration, security and imprisonment).
In Finland there are very few minors and youngsters in prisons, because according the Finnish law, the prison is the last choice for the juvenile delinquent. In assessment centers we have specialized personnel for youngsters who assess the educational needs of young prisoners. Always when it is possible, minors and youngsters are offered education during imprisonment. We have noticed that pre-vocational education is often a very useful educational program for minors and youngsters. Pre-vocational education is meant for prisoners who need preparatory instruction before studying for a qualification due to, for instance, poor study skills, learning problems and lack of motivation.What educational opportunities do minors and youngsters deprived of liberty have?
They can take part in basic education, upper secondary education, pre-vocational education and vocational training. High education opportunities are provided only by distance learning models. On certain conditions, youngsters placed in open prisons can also study in an educational institution outside the prison in “normal” environment.What difficulties are there in organizing the education for minors and youngsters deprived of liberty?
Because in Finland there are very few minors and youngsters in prisons, it is very difficult to organize special education only for them. That`s why we often have mixed study groups for youngsters and older prisoners. Minors and youngsters often have not motivation to study. So they need be motivated very carefully by prison staff.What does the cooperation between the education and the juvenile justice systems consist of?
In Finland, the education of prisoners is arranged by educational institutions operating outside the prison. So the education in prison is part of Finnish normal school system. Normally prisoners can also continue their studies in the same educational institution outside the prison after release. The educational institutions give the prisoner a certificate for the education, which does not indicate that the education has taken place in prison.How is the specific professionalization of the staff that delivers education for minors and youngsters carried out?
All prison teachers are hired by educational institutions. So the teachers have to have same qualifications than the teachers outside the prison. Prisoners have much learning difficulties, so the need of special teachers in prison is strong.
First of all, it must be stated that the Italian Department of Penitentiary Administration is only competent for adult offenders (18 years old and more). Therefore, all our answers to the present questionnaire are to be intended for the category of the prison population named as “young adults”, that is inmates from 18 to 25 years of age. That said, our priority is to ensure the same quality and variety of education as the education provided to free citizens, while keeping into account the peculiarities of the detention context and using a modular and flexible teaching method. Such a method acknowledges and assesses the skills and knowledge already acquired by the young inmates and aims at building training and education paths adequate to the real needs of the subjects, with a special focus on professional/job skills which can be useful for their social reintegration.What educational opportunities do minors and youngsters deprived of liberty have?
They have the same educational opportunities as their free peers, from the basic levels of education up to University education and vocational training.What difficulties are there in organizing the education for minors and youngsters deprived of liberty?
The difficulties are both of organizational – due to variable periods of detention – and of methodological nature. As for the latter aspect, it must be said that in order to motivate people serving sentences, our educational offer must detect the hidden or implicit educational demand of the subjects and must be modular and flexible. A purely standardized and “sequential” offer of education is not adequate in this case, since it does not take into consideration the adults’ learning modalities. Indeed, for adults, their personal experience plays a crucial role in their education both in a positive sense, as a facilitating learning element, and in a negative sense, as a background of adverse experiences hindering their acceptance of education. For such a reason, it is necessary to be very careful about the didactic methodologies to be used and about the teaching contents. The educational courses have to be drafted building on the skills/competences already owned by the subjects and must be carried out in cooperation by the educational system and the regional vocational training system.What does the cooperation between the education and the juvenile justice systems consist of?
For young adult inmates, a formal cooperation was set with the Ministry of Education through a Protocol of Agreement – confirmed on 23 May 2016 – between the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Education, aimed at implementing a “Special Program for Education and Vocational Training in prisons and juvenile institutions” (which concerns also minors). That Agreement aims at promoting the new organization of Adult Education also inside prisons, keeping into account the context peculiarities relevant both to the specific beneficiaries and to the organization and dynamics peculiar to the detention environment.How is the specific professionalization of the staff that delivers education for minors and youngsters carried out?
The teachers working in our prisons are employed by the Ministry of Education and are assigned to the courses activated in our prisons on the basis of regional rankings. Currently, there are not specific courses for teachers working inside prisons.