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The Self-Change Programme (SCP) is a high intensity cognitive-behavioural intervention that aims to reduce violence in high-risk adult male offenders, whose repetitive use of violence is part of a general pattern of antisocial behaviour and criminality. This programme has been revised to take account of the recent developments in violence research drawing on a number of theories related to violence and antisocial behaviour; cognitive-behavioural and social learning theories as well as multi-factorial models of general aggression. The programme is delivered in a series of phases, each building on the previous one. Engagement Phase This phase of the programme has been specifically designed to begin the process of engaging participants in exploring the choices and possible opportunities that participation in SCP might create for them. It aims to motivate participants to choose to constructively engage, and see a personal value and relevance in doing so. This is particularly important as we want participants to choose real and sustained pro-social change, not just comply with the programme. It is six sessions in length and delivered either in small groups or on a one to one basis. Core Phase This phase of the programme is run on a rolling basis and has 10 group members when at full capacity. Highly responsive to individual learning styles, participants enter the Core Phase on a staggered basis and, using a combination of group sessions and supported learning sessions, work at their own pace through the following four SCP skill steps: • Step 1 - Learning to observe own thoughts, feelings and personal rules • Step 2 - Exploring the connection between internal behaviour and use of violence • Step 3 - Strengthening ‘New Me’ • Step 4 - Future ‘New Me’ Each group session focuses on two different participants and the SCP skill step those participants are in. Responsivity to the individual is further enhanced through the delivery of a series of treatment packs that can be individually tailored to meet unique treatment needs. Group sessions are two hours in duration and are delivered at a rate of between three and four per week. Each participant has at least one supported learning session every fortnight. On average, participants are expected to attend 66 group sessions. Transition Phase This phase facilitates the participant leaving the supported treatment phase and making the transition back to the prison regime, with responsibility for their ongoing process of self-change. There are four Transition Phase sessions in total which are delivered over a maximum of eight weeks. Consolidation Phase This phase has been designed to ensure that individual progress gained from completion of the Core Phase is consolidated. It ensures continuity and reinforcement of learning in custody and the community and a smooth transition from one setting to another. The Consolidation Phase commences with the Post Programme Progress Review, which also marks the end of the Transition Phase. A recommended eight sessions in length, it is repeated at each significant milestone in the participant’s progress through the prison system and into the community. On average participants are expected to complete the Engagement, Core and Transition Phase within 6 to 7 months. In relation to consideration for future progression through the prison system, participants will be considered to have completed SCP after the Transition Phase.Have these programs been a subject of a specific evaluation? If so, what kind? (E.g. Impact assessment, internal or external evaluation, in partnership with a university?)
The study aimed to evaluate the Self-change programme (SCP) following its introduction to the Scottish Prison Service in 2014. SCP is a cognitive behavioural intervention aimed at reducing violence in high-risk adult male offenders. The study used prison misconduct reports and attitudinal questionnaire as the outcome measures. A quasi-experimental approach was used to test differences in prison misconduct reports between the treatment group and a matched control group. A within measures design was adopted to evaluate differences in pre and post programme overall scores on a range of questionnaires. Those who completed the programme showed a significant reduction in violence-related misconduct reports in prison compared to controls, and showed significant reductions in overall scores on attitudinal tests. The results show promising preliminary indications that the programme is being effective in achieving its aims and objectives. This supports the continued implementation of SCP in the Scottish Prison Service and promotes the utility of further long-term research when sufficient data is availableHow are detainees selected to participate in these programs?
Offenders should be recommended for SCP, through the Generic Programmes Assessment (GPA) and Programmes Case Management Board (PCMB) meetings, as per all other programmes offered in the SPS. The SCP Team will review all referrals to the programme and will confirm suitability via a selection board. The GPA guidance and relevant paperwork (file review, interview schedule, PCMB minute) will be updated to incorporate the additional information required for the SCP. The selection criteria is as follows: 1. The offender should have a current conviction for a violent offence. Violence is defined as “actual, attempted, or threatened infliction of bodily harm on another person” and the SCP is appropriate for offenders who use proactive and/or reactive violence. 2. The offender should have a history of previous violence. Previous violence can be demonstrated by the presence of at least two or more further incidents of violence or aggression, which can include convicted or un-convicted incidents. 3. The offender should be identified as high risk of re-offending as indicated by an up to date LS/CMI assessment. 4. The offender should be identified as at least a moderate risk of serious harm as indicated by an up to date LS/CMI assessment. SCP Clinical Override Cases can be considered, if in addition to having a current violence conviction and a history of violence, the offender is identified as being: • medium risk of re-offending and high or very high risk of serious harm as indicated by an up to date LS/CMI assessment.Are there assessments for danger/ risk of violence being acted out? If so, when is the evaluation done? By whom? What indicators are used?
The essence of SCP is about personal responsibility and choice. The target population for SCP is high in anti-social and anti-authority attitudes. It is therefore important that the process of change is adopted by the participant rather than enforced by facilitators. It is also important that participants find the process personally relevant and are able to identify and see value in the reasons and methods of change. With this in mind, the following concepts and tools are used to aid group members achieve self-change. SCP utilises a concept called the strategy of choices. Introduced during the Engagement Phase, this is a way of engaging participants which reinforces their choice and self-responsibility whilst providing clear and consistent risk management. This is particularly helpful in setting and maintaining boundaries and dealing with resistance. The Conditions of Success are a set of conditions which aim to promote meaningful participation whilst undertaking SCP. These are used to set the expectations for constructive participation. Participants must: • Keep an open channel of communication • Be respectful at all times, no matter what. • Participate constructively. Working with objectivity as a skill. Objectivity is used in SCP as a unique skill which enhances constructive and respectful involvement. It helps to increase the chances of participants and staff understanding of the participants’ true experiences. It is possible to then build more effective interventions and to practise this within a pro-change atmosphere. The four SCP skill steps are designed to help participants develop a picture of the thinking, feelings, attitudes and external influences that motivate their use of violence. Participants enhance their existing strengths and build new skills that help them manage the internal behaviours and external influences that sustain their use of violence. SCP has a broader reach in terms of offending behaviour, which includes targeting treatment needs related to violent fantasy, substance use, weapon related behaviour, and criminal peers (including gangs). There is an improved focus on factors that may reduce the risk of returning to offending. There is more motivational emphasis on finding a better life and a more responsive design increasing the flexibility and individualising of treatment through the provision of treatment packs which can be sequenced, tailored and built up to meet the individual needs of offenders. The SCP treatment targets make more explicit the goal of encouraging the participant to actively manage their own risk of violence, which may include monitoring and addressing destabilising influences such as substance use, pro-criminal peers, and developing supportive and collaborative relationships with those supervising their sentences. The SCP treatment targets are as follows: • Insight and Awareness – lacking understanding of thoughts, feelings and behaviours that influence their risk of violence • Impulsivity – making decisions without fully considering the facts, the circumstances and preferred consequences • Attitudes and Beliefs – believing violence to be either (i) an acceptable and necessary part of life, or (ii) an entitlement in response to perceived provocation or threats • Hostile Thinking – the tendency to attribute hostile intentions to the behaviour of others. • Emotion Management - sudden or frequent high levels of physiological arousal accompanied by strong negative emotions such as anger, frustration, rejection, jealousy • Interpersonal Skills – having a limited range of pro-social skills for dealing with conflict • Risk Management - limited, unsafe or unrealistic plans for risk management and relapse prevention.Do you have specific architectural designs that are developed to manage difficult prisoners?
Most Scottish Prisons have Segregation and Reparation Units (SRU) where prisoners who, through infractions, present a danger to themselves or others can be housed for short periods of time. There are strict conditions within the Prison Rules regarding the placing of a prisoner in segregation, the levels of authorisation required and the duration for which it remains lawful.
There is a violently disruptive policy in place which aims to - to protect staff and other persons from inmates who have a history of violent acts and who are considered to be a high risk of causing serious injury to another person - to make efforts to intervene with inmates categorised as violently disruptive prisoners to reduce their risk of violence. A national dedicated unit is planned for this type of prisoner to open in Qtr 4 2018. A copy of the policy can be provided if required.Have these programs been a subject of a specific evaluation? If so, what kind? (E.g. Impact assessment, internal or external evaluation, in partnership with a university?)
The new national unit is modelled on UK Supervision Centres. A PhD student has been engaged in partnership with a university to evaluate the Unit effectiveness over a 4 year period.How are detainees selected to participate in these programs?
Violently Disruptive Prisoner is defined in the policy as any prisoner who -engages in serious repetitive violent acts on staff and /or other prisoners and -is associated with a significant risk of violence towards others and -poses particular operational difficulties/problems to the prison system.Are there assessments for danger/ risk of violence being acted out? If so, when is the evaluation done? By whom? What indicators are used?
When open, the Unit will provide an intensive assessment facility for such prisoners (approx. four month period of assessment.Do you have specific architectural designs that are developed to manage difficult prisoners?
Yes, the plans were developed for the remodelling of an existing prison wing.
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We have two programs for violent persons: Anger management (AM) and Aggression replacement training (ART). AM is meant for persons that are unable to control their irritation and feelings in general. ART is meant for violent offenders with an average or higher recidivism risk. These interventions are not the specific programs for inmates that might commit violence in prison, but for violent persons in general. It is permitted to apply the following as additional security measures: 1) restriction of a prisoner's freedom of movement and communication inside the prison; 2) prohibition for a prisoner to wear personal clothing or use personal effects; 3) prohibition for a prisoner to engage in sports; 4) commission of a prisoner in an isolated locked cell; 5) use of means of restraint.Have these programs been a subject of a specific evaluation? If so, what kind? (E.g. Impact assessment, internal or external evaluation, in partnership with a university?)
NoHow are detainees selected to participate in these programs?
For participation the inmate must meet the program’s eligibility criteria.Are there assessments for danger/ risk of violence being acted out? If so, when is the evaluation done? By whom? What indicators are used?
All prisoners whose prison sentence is longer than one year will be given an offender risk assessment that includes information on past documented violent behaviour in prison or towards officials (inside or outside prison). The risk assessment is carried out by a prison inspector.Do you have specific architectural designs that are developed to manage difficult prisoners?
We have special abuse resistant cells: furniture made of poured concrete, steel sanitary wear, grilled windows, cell door is supplemented by an additional inner grill gate.
There are three structured treatment programs that are enforced for violent prisoners in Croatian Prison System - Aggression Replacement Training (ART), Treatment for violent offenders (NAS) and Treatment of sexual offenders (PRIKIP) ART is intended for the perpetrators of violent offences and other prisoners that have difficulties in control of aggressive behaviour. NAS is intended for the prisoners with adjudicated security measure of mandatory psychosocial treatment. PRIKIP is basically intended for preventing of sexual offenders's relapse. There is also some cooperation with NGO's in this area.Have these programs been a subject of a specific evaluation? If so, what kind? (E.g. Impact assessment, internal or external evaluation, in partnership with a university?)
For all three programs internal process evaluation and evaluation of program efficiency (outcomes) is carried out.How are detainees selected to participate in these programs?
Selection of participants is carried out on a basis of adjudicated security measure of mandatory psychosocial treatment as well as the assesment of criminogenic risks and needs carried out in Diagnostic centre or prison/penitentiary where respective prisoner serve prison sentence.Are there assessments for danger/ risk of violence being acted out? If so, when is the evaluation done? By whom? What indicators are used?
There is assesment about risk of violent behaviour. It is carried out in Diagnostic Centre by psychologists, social workers, lawyers and physician immediately at the beginning of prisoner's serving a prison sentence, for all prisoners with adjudicated sentence over 6 months. Indicators of risk of violent behaviour are previous conduct as well as ratio of established protective and risk factors of individual prisoner. Sources of date are psychological tests, diagnostic interview, documentation etc.Do you have specific architectural designs that are developed to manage difficult prisoners?
Accommodation in an intensive supervision ward may be ordered only in closed prisons or penitentiaries. During the enforcement of this measure prisoner shall participate to all activities determined by the enforcement program which are organized. The measure has to be reconsidered every three months and in case it is repeated an appeal can be filed with the enforcement judge.
The Danish Prison and Probation Service has answered the questions concerning Programmes for Violent Detainees below, which we hope will serve your purpose, however current resources do not allow for further elaboration. Two of the six cognitive programmes in The Danish Prison and Probation Service are targeted prisoners with anger or violent behavior: Anger Management for persons who sometimes loses control over their temper or feels bottled-up because they are having difficulties expressing themselves and Violence Prevention Programme for persons who need new methods and tools that can help them cope with situations and provocations that in their past could result in violence.Have these programs been a subject of a specific evaluation? If so, what kind? (E.g. Impact assessment, internal or external evaluation, in partnership with a university?)
International studies and meta-studies show that cognitive behavioral programmes are successful in reducing the future criminal activities of offenders. Evaluation after each programme is performed based on questionnaires that clients are required to complete before and after participating in the program. The results of the questionnaires are reviewed by a program consultant who assures the quality and gives feedback to the trainer based on the results. Additionally the data from the questionnaires are used in an annual report regarding the cognitive rehabilitation programs in DPPS.How are detainees selected to participate in these programs?
Risk and needs are assessed by a case-manager upon arrival using the standardized and evidence based risk/needs assessment tool LS/RNR. LS/RNR is implemented in all Danish prisons and in the Probation Service. Cognitive programmes are primarily offered to persons who score medium to very high in the LS/RNR assessment.Are there assessments for danger/ risk of violence being acted out? If so, when is the evaluation done? By whom? What indicators are used?
Se the answer aboveDo you have specific architectural designs that are developed to manage difficult prisoners?
No specific programme (in terms of a social-interventional programme aimed at violent prisoners) has been created so far. Prisoner who endangers one´s life, health or life and health of another person by aggressive behaviour shall be isolated in the security regime unit. Treatment of prisoners in this unit focuses on suppression of negative conduct, the safety view and regime activities are stressed. Prisoners placed to the security regime unit are accommodated to a single or double occupancy cell that shall always be locked. The internal equipment of the cell is fixed to the floor or to the wall. A prison officer is on duty 24/7 in this unit and he controls the movement and activity of prisoners placed here.Have these programs been a subject of a specific evaluation? If so, what kind? (E.g. Impact assessment, internal or external evaluation, in partnership with a university?)
No.How are detainees selected to participate in these programs?
Prison governor shall decide on placement of a prisoner to the security regime unit. The basic document for inclusion of a prisoner to this unit is the psycho-diagnostic examination of the personality of the prisoner realized upon admission to the prison sentence execution or information on the course of the pre-trial detention and prison sentence execution.Are there assessments for danger/ risk of violence being acted out? If so, when is the evaluation done? By whom? What indicators are used?
There is no evaluation focused on any risks of violence. The risk factors are evaluated within the complex psycho-diagnostic assessment of the personality of the prisoner upon admission to the prison sentence execution. Prison governor and the supervising prosecutor shall examine the justification of placement to the security regime unit at least once a three months.Do you have specific architectural designs that are developed to manage difficult prisoners?
Prisoners who are not able to manage their aggressive behaviour can be placed to the so-called compensation room. It is a room specially adjusted so that the prisoner cannot harm himself/herself. The compensation room is not determined for accommodation of prisoners, i.e. one can be placed there only for a short term, thus until signs of his/her uncontrollable behaviour are over (those that can endanger one´s life, health or life and health of another person).
Prisoners that might commit violence in penitentiary institutions are included on the list of prisoners liable to attack. Prison staff are provided recommendations on supervision and communication with such prisoners. Prisoners that might behave violently may participate in psychological groups that are aggression and emotion management oriented, as well as get individual psychological counselling. A cognitive-behaviorist program One to One is applied to perpetrators of violence. Perpetrators of domestic violence participate in a group therapy program Intervention Program for Domestic Perpetrators.Have these programs been a subject of a specific evaluation? If so, what kind? (E.g. Impact assessment, internal or external evaluation, in partnership with a university?)
In 2016 the external impact verification of the program One to One was carried out in collaboration with the academics from Vilnius UniversityHow are detainees selected to participate in these programs?
Selection procedure is based on risk and needs assessmentAre there assessments for danger/ risk of violence being acted out? If so, when is the evaluation done? By whom? What indicators are used?
Violence risk assessment is carried out using HCR-20. Prisoners entering establishment and prisoners prepared for conditional release are assessedDo you have specific architectural designs that are developed to manage difficult prisoners?
Each prison has its own violence prevention plan
In collaboration with the State Probation Service in the imprisonment places of Latvia there is implemented social behaviour correction programme "Programme for monitoring and supervision of sexual offenders" (hereinafter – Programme for sexual offenders) and social behaviour correction programme "Programme for monitoring and supervision of sexual offenders (adapted for murderers)" (hereinafter – Programme for sexual offenders/murderers) Programme for sexual offenders is intended for the behavioural correction of a person who has committed a criminal offence against morality and sexual inviolability, by beginning the work already in imprisonment place. For the basis of the programme is used a programme developed in Russian Federation that has been adapted to the circumstances in Latvia by the specialists from the SIA "Adventure`s world". The author of the Programme is Associate Professor Sergey Khachaturyan. Programme is intended for men that have reached the age of 18 years. The duration of Programme implementation is 1.5 years – the first part (work within the framework of the Programme) and 1 year – the second part (participation in the therapeutic community). During the first part of the Programme, under the supervision of 2 specialists, the participants (on average 8 persons per group) with group work activities gets to know themselves, comes to admitting their guilt, develops empathy and compassion, studies their “risk zones” as well as develops supplementary strategies for their behaviour correction. Within the second part of the Programme, the work is continued in the support group, i.e. “therapeutic community” (if the inmate continues to serve their sentence) where the participants study the causes that contributed to the crime (sexual history) and comes to conclusions about the prevention of the consequences of repeated offence as well as learn to take responsibility for their actions, carries out self-analysis and crime-analysis. The support group can continue for indeterminate time. Within the framework of the programme, work is carried out according with 3 levels of resources of the crisis intervention principle: 1. 1st level – "Me myself"; 2. 2nd level – "Surrounding people"; 3. 3rd level – "Specialists". Included the final criteria of the Programme: description of the participant's psychosocial history; comprehension/insight in victim's feelings (empathy); plan (short-term and long-term) to prevent repeated offence. Principle for group selection: preparation phase (beginning the first part of the programme) – making contacts, developing therapeutic relationships, diagnostics. Drawing up cognitive profile. Length – 16 working hours, planning the meeting time for around 2 times per week for 2 to 3 hours. Participant's duty is to alert about leaving the group 4 weeks prior. Programme for sexual offenders/murderers is intended for behavioural correction of persons who have committed intentional, planned murder. During the selection the time period until possible conditional release must be taken into consideration – upon starting the programme it cannot be shorter than 2–3 years until possible conditional release. Programme for sexual offenders is adapted also for murderers, as the persons who have committed both crimes are oppressors. Homicides and sexual crimes can be comparable as the motives for crimes can be assessed as similar – when committing sexual crime or intentional, planned murder they are reducing long-term stress or tension (also sexual). Within the framework of the ESF project No. 126.96.36.199/16/I/001 "Raising the efficiency of resocialization system" from 2018 until 2020 Violence reduction programme (VRP) from Canada will be taken, adapted and implemented in practice. The target group of the programme is persons at the age from 17 with medium and high risk of committing violent criminal offences. The goal of the programme is to lower the risk of violence for inmates (forensic clients) with history of antisocial behaviour and/or violence, i.e., inmates with psychopathic tendencies or antisocial behaviour disorders. Authors of the programme are Stephen Wong Ph.D. and Audrey Gorgon, M.Ed., R.Psych. The programme is based on using risk-need-responsivity principles together with effective methods of current clinical psychology and offender rehabilitation, such as cognitive-behavioural approach, relapse prevention, motivated intervention approach etc.Have these programs been a subject of a specific evaluation? If so, what kind? (E.g. Impact assessment, internal or external evaluation, in partnership with a university?)
Within the framework of the ESF project No. 188.8.131.52/16/I/001 "Raising the efficiency of resocialization system", by 2020 research on the effectivity of the Programme for sexual offenders and Programme for sexual offenders/murderers will be carried out. Empirical research, where there was used long-term follow-up experimental research design with a control group, gave evidence that participation in Violence reduction programme is connected to the reduced numbers of repeated offence of general and violent nature (Wong & Gordon, 2013). There is evidence that the previously mentioned programme is effective for treating offenders with substantial psychopathic features (Oliver, Lewis & Wong, 2013; Wong, Gordon, Gu, Levis & Over, 2012).How are detainees selected to participate in these programs?
Participants of the Programme for sexual offenders and Programme for sexual offenders/murderers are selected based on the committed crime and the risk of repeated offence. Violence reduction programme selects the participants by using specially developed risk assessment instrument the Violence Risk Scale (VRS). With the help of VRS it is possible to tell client's violence risk level, resocialisation needs (criminogenic needs), additional factors that can significantly impact the effectiveness of the resocialisation activities as well as what changes have occurred in client's thought process and behaviour as a result of the resocialisation process.Are there assessments for danger/ risk of violence being acted out? If so, when is the evaluation done? By whom? What indicators are used?
No additional instruments are currently used.Do you have specific architectural designs that are developed to manage difficult prisoners?
If necessary, prisoner is isolated from other inmates and is placed in a single cell. By administering punishment for the physical abuse of another prisoner or physical resistance against a staff member of the institution – a juvenile is placed in a disciplinary isolator, an adult prisoner – in punishment isolator. Special pacification cells are used in the Olaine prison Addiction centre and in Latvian Prison Hospital.
In general, no specific programs as mentioned in the question are delivered in the Belgian prison system. However, in the High Security Unit (in the prison of Bruges) where prisoners are placed with persistent, extreme behavioural problems and aggression towards prison staff and/or other prisoners, efforts are undertaken to stabilise and normalise their behaviour in order to let them return to a normal prison regime. This is done by security personnel and a specialised team (psychiatrist, psychologist, social worker, psychiatric nurses, …) who have received a specialized training. Besides that, prisoners with mental health problems (considered not responsible for their crimes) are followed up by specialized teams, with attention for the risk of violence if indicated. For other prisoners, some interventions targeting the reduction of violence are provided by external services (Communities). In Belgium, (psychological) assistance is the responsibility of the (Flemish and Walloon) Communities.Have these programs been a subject of a specific evaluation? If so, what kind? (E.g. Impact assessment, internal or external evaluation, in partnership with a university?)
These interventions have not been subject of specific evaluations.How are detainees selected to participate in these programs?
The Director General decides on the placement on the High Security Unit. There are regular consultations between the local and regional directorate on the general functioning of the High Security Unit and the specific regimes of individual prisoners. Each case is evaluated individually and the regime is re-evaluated at least every eight weeks. Prisoners who pose an increased risk of (further) committing violence inside the prison but not ‘high enough’ for placement on the High Security Unit, are subjected to individual prison regimes; these are evaluated every two months (at least), including a psychiatric advise. These (and other) inmate can be and are encouraged by prison personnel to participate in programmes / interventions, but participation is always on a voluntary basis.Are there assessments for danger/ risk of violence being acted out? If so, when is the evaluation done? By whom? What indicators are used?
No assessments are performed specifically for participation in programs or interventions. However, risk assessments (including for the risk of violence) are carried out in the context of giving advises concerning the modes of the execution of sanctions (penitentiary leave, conditional release, …). This is done by psychologists, social workers and psychiatrists, who have received an in-depth in service training. For assessing the risk of ‘general’ violence, the HCR-20V3 is used (other instruments for other types of violence, e.g. sexual or intimate).Do you have specific architectural designs that are developed to manage difficult prisoners?
The Belgian prison system has different degrees of security. The High Security Unit is specially designed to house the most violent inmates.
We don't have specific programs for prisoners that are violent within prison settings. They will probably be offered the same programs that specifically address violence: Violence Prevention Programs (VPP); PULS ( A Swedish acronym for Problem-solving, relations, long-term goals and self-control). If they are in need of individual counselling they will be offered One-to-One (by Priestley). The main intervention startegy is otherwise to separate violent prisoners.Have these programs been a subject of a specific evaluation? If so, what kind? (E.g. Impact assessment, internal or external evaluation, in partnership with a university?)
Several accredited programs effects on recidivism have been evaluated within the organization through statistical analysis using register-data (where clients are being followed up after release from prison or after probation. One-to-one is one of those. VPP has been evaluated in Canada, and Puls have not been running long enough to be evaluated using recidivism as major outcome. To be accredited, a program must have shown positive short-come treatment effects.How are detainees selected to participate in these programs?
All programs for violence prevention are administered based on the results of a structured risk- and need assessment. Before allocation to a prison an assessment including a categorization of level of control based on known risk factors för intrainstitutional misbehavior is performed.Are there assessments for danger/ risk of violence being acted out? If so, when is the evaluation done? By whom? What indicators are used?
The assessment of risk to determine level of control during incarceration comprises the risk of violence to staff or other prisoners and visitors. Different sources of information are used and include the character and extent of the criminality, the outcome of previous incarcerations, drug abuse and physical health.Do you have specific architectural designs that are developed to manage difficult prisoners?
To manage difficult prisoners there is possible to allocate them to prisons with different security levels where the level of physical means and procedural means are adjusted to meet the risk level of the prisoner (within prisons there are also possible to differentiate prisoners to different sections to meet to meet the need for security, care and control). At three prisons with the highest security level there are special security sections.
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