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Introduction: The Psychology Service in the Irish Prison Service is reviewing the psychology input in open prisons. Given that the psychological needs of prisoners in open and closed prisons might be different, the way in which psychology operates and is resourced in open prisons should reflect that.
Non applicable - No Open PrisonsIn what way does the input from psychology in open prisons differ from closed prisons? What is the composition of psychology staff in open prisons in comparison to closed prisons?
There's only a social worker in our open prisons.In what way does the input from psychology in open prisons differ from closed prisons? What is the composition of psychology staff in open prisons in comparison to closed prisons?
In Denmark a client in an open prison can be referred to a clinical psychologists in the community or to a psychologists who is connected to one of the four regions of Prison and Probation Service in Denmark.In what way does the input from psychology in open prisons differ from closed prisons?
In Denmark clients in need of psychiatric/psychological treatment during incarceration are referred to "Herstedvester Prison". In this prison there is a treatment-team of psychologists, psychiatrists, medical doctor and nurses who work together with teachers, foremen and prison officers. In the other closed prisons in Denmark there are no psychologists employed; here clients in need of psycholigical treatment can be reffered to psychologist in the community or region, as described above for open prisons. Currently 2 parttime psychologists are conducting an ADHD-project in a closed prisons.What is the composition of psychology staff in open prisons in comparison to closed prisons?
In Denmark there is no psychology staff as such in open and closed prisons; instead clients are referred to psychological treatment in the community. Only in the treatment prison "Herstedvester Prison", there is a staff of 8-9 psychologists.
We are not an open prisonIn what way does the input from psychology in open prisons differ from closed prisons?
We are not an open prisonWhat is the composition of psychology staff in open prisons in comparison to closed prisons?
We are not an open prison
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The tasks of psychologists in open prisons, in the main, mirrors that in closed sites with some important distinctions. In open sites, core offending behaviour interventions are generally not delivered. The expectation is that core risk reduction work would have been done prior to an individual progressing to open conditions. Psychologists may undertake targeted sessions of top-up work to refresh skills from work carried out in closed prisons. This is however limited within the open estate. Psychologists deliver a range of psychological services to the Governor and Senior Management Team, and other key personnel in the prisons (e.g. consultancy; regime development; research and training). The majority of direct client work for psychologists in open prisons is the provision of risk assessment reports for parole hearings and supporting the Enhanced Behaviour Monitoring (EBM) process across the open estate. EBM involves psychologists completing file-based reviews of cases who are subject to Restricted ROTL (for cases who are indeterminate sentenced prisoners, those who are MAPPA cases and others that are managed by the National Probation Service). These reviews provide feedback to prison managers about any possible risk-related behaviours which may still be present in their custodial behaviour. For those cases warranting it, ‘full’ EBM can be used, whereby prisoners are monitored monthly over six months with targets set and support provided to try to enable them to work on or self-manage their risk related behaviours. The psychologists contribute to the target setting process where EBM is used.In what way does the input from psychology in open prisons differ from closed prisons?
n terms of the main differences between open and closed: - EBM is only used in the open estate. Psychology case files are completed for all potential EBM cases in the open prisons, as well as the target setting input should cases be managed via EBM. - Group-based offending-related interventions are not delivered in the open estate, although some resettlement based services may provide some of this work - Individual work is limited to high priority cases.What is the composition of psychology staff in open prisons in comparison to closed prisons?
It is difficult to quantify the composition of psychology staff in open as compared with closed prisons. The psychology resources at each prison are derived from the population number, type and turnover, as well as by the specific work undertaken there (e.g. EBM for open prisons; programmes for closed). Whilst open prisons would have fewer psychology staff for certain work (e.g. contributions to initial sentence planning boards), they would have some staff for work not delivered in closed sites (e.g. EBM resources).
No distinction is made between open and closed regimes.In what way does the input from psychology in open prisons differ from closed prisons? What is the composition of psychology staff in open prisons in comparison to closed prisons?
Given that there is no difference in the intervention of a psychologist in an open and closed institution in The Swedish Prison and Probation Service (SPPS), a coherent response to the above questions is provided below. In Sweden, the principle of normalization applies, which means that in open prison, clients can, to a greater extent, take part of the society's resources, ie. healthcare that the public health care system is responsible for. In other words, the SPPS has no “job description” for what a psychologist should do in open vs. closed prison. However, we have as a requirement that psychologists working in the SPPS work with measures that we know are risk-reducing. The risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model acts as a filter that determines what efforts a psychologist are going to work with. The RNR model has been widely regarded as the premier model for guiding offender assessment and treatment. The RNR model was formulated by Don Andrews, James Bonta and Robert Hoge at the Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada. The model underlies some of the most widely used risk-needs offender assessment instruments, and it is the only theoretical model that has been used to interpret the offender treatment literature. The better you follow the principles (risk-need-responsivity), the more effective is the relapse prevention program. Later research has strengthened the importance of relapse prevention efforts being planned and implemented based on the client's risk, needs and responsivity. In concrete terms, the psychologists mainly work with: • Risk- and needs assessments • Assessment – to investigate the need for psychological treatment or neuropsychiatric investigation • Psychological treatment • Neuropsychiatric investigations and treatment plans • Skills development for SPPS staff • Complex treatment programsIn what way does the input from psychology in open prisons differ from closed prisons? What is the composition of psychology staff in open prisons in comparison to closed prisons?
In open units of Slovenian Prison System we do not have systemised working places for psychologist. If there is any need we try to cover from the base facility. Such very rare cases are also planned in advance via personal sentence plans. Just for clarification: in Slovenia each prison facility has closed, semi-open and open unit and some of the open units are in dislocated facility.In what way does the input from psychology in open prisons differ from closed prisons?
In everyday practice someone who is included in the psychological process and is moved to open unit he is still observed through psychological treatment as it was predicted in personal sentence plan. Generally such inmate comes for the psychological treatment to the base facility.What is the composition of psychology staff in open prisons in comparison to closed prisons?
For example sex offender could be placed in the open unit prison with court decision (very rear case). Psychologist observes such an inmate and also could be involved in the treatment, which could be individual.
The following details the current role and responsibilities of Psychology within the Open Estate: 1. Contributing to effective risk management as part of the Risk Management Team (RMT). 2. Input where needed to risk management for those offenders managed under MAPPA and other forms of multi-agency working whether community or prison based. 3. Contribution to a range of multi-disciplinary groups whether prison or community based (e.g. MDMHTM, IRMM, RMCC). 4. Delivering and supporting the delivery of 1:1 / 2:1 offending behaviour programme maintenance work. 5. Conducting Psychological Risk Assessment’s (PRA’s) when commissioned by the Risk Management Team. 6. Case Managing individuals subject to the Order for Lifelong Restriction (OLR). 7. Delivery of staff training (e.g. Personality Disorder, OLR Awareness Training etc)In what way does the input from psychology in open prisons differ from closed prisons?
In comparison to closed conditions we do not deliver any offending behaviour programmes at the Open Estate although will, as stated above, provide maintenance / consolidation work where this is deemed necessary. In addition, in the Open Estate there is a far greater requirement for working alongside community partners as the focus is on successful community reintegration.What is the composition of psychology staff in open prisons in comparison to closed prisons?
In the Open Estate there is 1 x Psychology Manager at this time. However, due to increasing demands, including the rising number of OLR’s transferring to the OE, the level of resources is being reviewed.
Open units are part of Remand Prison and Prison or Prison (hereinafter only “prison”). They are not a separate organizational unit and therefore do not have psychologist who would work only for the open units. Psychological service/ activities is performed by the psychologists of the prison, of which the open unit is part of. One of the first tasks of the prison psychologists is the selection of convicts suitable for placement in the open unit, performed in the form of psychodiagnostics. Another task of the prison psychologists is to stabilize the mental condition of the convict in order to prevent self-harm or suicides. This task is realized by psychological activities in the form of intervention, crisis intervention, psychological counseling or psychotherapy. Prison psychologists carry out with convicts also other psychological activities aimed mainly at the change of attitudes and behavior of convicts in order to be in accordance with the social norms.In what way does the input from psychology in open prisons differ from closed prisons?
Psychological activities mentioned in reply on question no. 1 are carried out in the closed prisons as well as in the open units.What is the composition of psychology staff in open prisons in comparison to closed prisons?
Corps of Prison and Court Guard does not have psychologists working solely for the open units.
In the open departments of the prisons in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania no (treating) psychological service is established. Psychological treatment measures for individual prisoners in accordance with the prison plan will be completed in the closed department (before the prisoner moves to the open department). Any remaining existing or resulting therapeutic treatment requirements are made comparable to the situation in freedom by established external psychotherapists. Insurance provider would then be the health insurance of the person affected. These cases are extremely rare. The psychologists from the closed department are responsible for the open department. The background to this is the professional crisis Intervention of the psychologists. Causal examples of the occurrence of such crises are separations or even losses of contact persons and the danger of suicide. In a two-stage procedure, the crisis situation is assessed at specific points. The prisoner is heard and advised in a short contact. Subsequently, the feedback takes place, for the further handling of the person concerned to the open department. An assessment is always included as to whether the prisoner's suitability for the special requirements of the open department must be called into question by the current situation in the short or medium term.In what way does the input from psychology in open prisons differ from closed prisons?
As mentioned above, no psychology service is set up in the open departments. Psychologists only work there as required by the department in the form of crisis intervention.What is the composition of psychology staff in open prisons in comparison to closed prisons?
Not applicable, because there is no psychology service established in the open departments.
There are psycho-social units and in these units psychologists and social workers work together. The tasks of psychologists and social workers are the same in all type of prisons. The tasks of psycho-social units professionals are; to provide psychological support to all inmates without any discrimination between them, to apply programs which would protect and develop their mental and psychical health, to make individual professional interventions, to make group interventions such as anger management program etc. We have an intervention program called “YARDM(Help)”. With this intervention program, it is aimed to evaluate the inmate in accordance with risk-need- properness model during his/her imprisonment. And towards this model, every professional working in psycho-social units takes practice ‘the individual intervention application guide to mental illnesses’ training. Also there are group theraphy programmes such as; Anger Management, Alcohol and Drug Addiction, Inmate Development Before Release, First Think, Special Surveillance and Inspection, Staff Awaraness about Prevention of Suicide and Self-Harm etc. The professionals are trained through these programs as well. With it, “DEPAR Programme” is financed by European Union, play apart in psycho-social interventions. There are 15 intervention programmes and a quick evaluation tool to classify inmates proper to their crime motivations and to individualize their rehabilitation process.In what way does the input from psychology in open prisons differ from closed prisons?
Same in whole type of prisons.What is the composition of psychology staff in open prisons in comparison to closed prisons?
Same in whole type of prisons.
Psychological counselling, if needed Social rehabilitation programmes, if needed Crisis prevention Needs and risk assessment before conditional releaseIn what way does the input from psychology in open prisons differ from closed prisons?
1. Working schedule (late working hours because prisoners are at work). 2. The intensity of interventions (in open prison interventions are much less intensive than in close prison).What is the composition of psychology staff in open prisons in comparison to closed prisons?
In the open prison work 2 psychologists 1 time per week. Other weekdays the same psychologists work in close prison.
Rehabilitative work with prisoners including various interventions and mental health work. Practices that target specific psychological risk factors of re-offending (antisocial thinking & behaviour, violence, substance abuse, mental health, family relations). Psychologists’ tasks can also include rehabilitative program work regarding re-offending. Collaboration with prison staff, civil services and NGOs to reintegrate prisoners back to society.In what way does the input from psychology in open prisons differ from closed prisons?
It doesn’t differ significantly. Possibilities to work with civil services and NGOs are better (open prison). Tasks related to short-term prisoners’ specific needs (mental health and substance abuse) might be more important. Long-term prisoners come to open prisons in the end part of their sentence so they have already done a lot of rehabilitative work in closed prisons – the work in open prisons (also with the psychologist) concentrates more on reintegrative and supportive practices rather than risk-spefific or long-term program work / psychotherapy.What is the composition of psychology staff in open prisons in comparison to closed prisons?
In some open prisons there are psychologists (max. one psychologist per open prison) but most open units lack psychologist at the moment. Instead they have social workers or nurses that replace the work done by psychologists in these units.
According with the service/work schedule set by the Head of the prison, psychologists to their best ability carry out their duties and fully uses the service/work time, complies with the internal regulations of the prison. During work, the relationships with colleagues and other officers must comply with the set subordination order, Code of Ethics of the Latvian Prison Administration and the psychologist work ethics. Psychologists do not disclose information in their possession, which is considered as restricted access information according with the normative acts that are currently in force; ensure that the requirements of the Personal Data Processing Law and psychological care work ethic are complied with. Develop their professional qualification by attending professional qualification development events, training and experience exchange activities organized by the Latvian Prison Administration. Ensures that the necessary work documentation is appropriately organized. Psychologists carry out prisoner psychological research: o Carry out psychological function assessment of newly admitted prisoners; o Within their competencies carry out inmate risk and neds initial and repeated assessment; take part in inmate risk and needs assessment compilation, inmate resocialisation result assessment; o Prepare materials necessary for the research of inmate psychology; o Use safe psychological testing methods; o Carry out psychological research, compilation of its results; o Interpret the results of the psychological research. Compile psychological evaluation, give the necessary recommendations to the prison officers with the purpose of developing the inmate resocialisation process; Talks over and explains the lessons learned to the inmate in a way that is understandable to them. In cooperation with other officers and employees of the prison psychologists participate in developing resocialisation plans for imprisoned persons, evaluation of the implementation of the resocialisation plans as well as the correction of the plans (in the field of psychological care). Carry out prisoner psychological consultations (individual and group) after receiving a request from the prisoner or prison administration: o Determine the goal of the consultation and develops consultation plan; o Choose the most appropriate consultation methods; o Manages consultation process; o Discuss and explain the consultation process and its results to the prisoners; o Within the competences of psychologist carries out the prevention measures of suicidal behaviour – administer psychological first aid (crisis intervention) in the cases where there has been suicide attempt and/or crisis, develop a plan for working with the inmate who has attempted suicide or is in a state of crisis, and prepare the evaluation of the psychological state of the prisoner. Manage resocialisation and social behaviour correctional programmes and activities for prisoners.In what way does the input from psychology in open prisons differ from closed prisons?
Psychologist services do not differ between open and closed prisons.What is the composition of psychology staff in open prisons in comparison to closed prisons?
In Latvia there are three prisons where there are open prison blocks: 1) Jekabpils prison – semi-open prison with open prison block; 2) Olaine prison ¬¬– closed prison with semi-open prison block, investigation prison block and open prison block; 3) Daugavgrivas prison – closed prison with semi-open prison block, investigation prison block and open prison block. In each of the previously mentioned prisons there work psychologists thus providing the psychological care also to those imprisoned persons who are placed in open prison blocks. In Jekabpils prison – the psychological care to those prisoners who are placed in open prison blocks is provided by one (1) psychologist out of the three (3) psychologists working the prison. In Olaine prison – the psychological care to all categories of prisoners, including those in open prison block, is provided by one (1) psychologist. In Daugavgrivas prison – the psychological care to those prisoners who are placed in open prison blocks is provided by three (3) psychologist out of the eleven (11) psychologists working the prison