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In Albanian penitentiary system, the social service has been implemented since 2000. Psychological service is established for the first time in 2007, previously as a part time service and soon after as a full time service. Currently social affair staff in IECD is composed of 116 specialists belonging to different professions such as psychologists, social workers, educators, and also other support professions, who assist in organizing vocational trainings, sports and re-creative activities. Currently, the Albanian penitentiary system accommodates a number of 5988 inmates with a temporary amount of overcrowding of 19.7% over capacity. The number of psychologist is 26, with a rate of 1:230 and the number of social workers is 53 with a rate of 1:113. Besides, General Directorate of Prisons of Albania has signed understanding agreement with many NGO-s that offer psychological and social assistance for prisoners, in support to the activity of social affairs staff. What are the tasks of psychologists/social workers/ case managers?
Forensic psychologists work mainly in the prison to develop intervention techniques and care programs for use with both offenders. They develop one-to-one or group treatment programs to specifically address offending behavior and psychological need, for example, to manage depression, anger or anxiety. Forensic psychologists play a critical role in the assessment of offenders and the provision of support and training for other staff. Research is a further element of their work, as is writing psychological reports about a perpetrator for the court. This is done from an independent position and is not related to the job he fulfills in prison. Furthermore they can be asked to advise parole boards and mental health tribunals. Using expertise based on psychological theory and research, forensic psychologists work closely with other professionals and agencies both in the assessment and treatment of individuals, and in the development of institutional policy and working practices. A Forensic Psychologist in the Albania Prison System Forensic psychology is often perceived as concerning criminal investigation and profiling. However forensic psychology predominantly relates to the assessment and treatment of criminal behavior. Forensic psychologists work not only with prisoners and offenders but also other professionals involved in the judicial and penal systems. Much of the work of a forensic psychologist focuses on care in correctional settings and the prison psychologist plays a key role in the institution. The admission, care and guidance of detainees are determined mostly by the psychologist. They keep individual contacts with detainees (who in most cases have serious multiple psychological problems) and more specifically carry out: - crisis intervention- Including suicide, self injury or other high risk behavior. - diagnostics - treatment/care indications - checking and monitoring treatment groups to ensure standards and quality; - overseeing the training of prison/probation service staff; - preparing risk assessment reports; - overseeing the provision of support during serious incidents; - presenting findings from assessments to a wider staff and management audience; - liaising with and providing consultancy to hospital staff, prison officers, the police, social workers; - attending team and area meetings. The Role and Function of social workers within Albanian penitentiary system. In the prison social workers work mainly to develop rehabilitation programs for offenders and also to establish support networks for a successful reintegration of them into society. Within penitentiary system social workers are engaged mainly in establishing detention and reintegration programs which consist on psycho-social support, education and vocational training, mediation of conflicts, risk assessment, reference of cases to specialized assistance etc. As regarding to successful reintegration of offenders into society, social workers establish cooperation with support networks outside the penitentiary system such as Probation service, Local Government Units (Municipalities and Communes), local institutions of social service, local institutions of social protection, offenders' families, NGO-s, business community (enterprises) etc.Special Remarks or Comments
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(1) The Catalan prison system has psychologists, social workers and educators. Since imprisonment can be fulfilled in two different regimes (ordinary and open regime), the ratios are: In ordinary Regime 1psychologist x 100 inmates 1 social worker x 100 inmates 1 educator x 50 inmates In open regime: 1Psychologist x 150 cases 1 social worker x 60 cases 1 educator x 50 cases (2) The tasks are:What are the tasks of psychologists/social workers/ case managers?
Psychologist The psychologists focus their attention on the offender: a) Improving the quality of life taken from the psychological perspective b) Intervene to modify the risk factors that have made the inmate to comet the crime c) Information about the prisoner addressed to judicial and administrative operators d) Intervention in treatment programs e) Proactive attitude Social workers Social workers put their attention on the offender focusing on everything related to their social environment. a) Observation of the social environment in order to provide guidelines to facilitate the integration of the inmate b) Information for administrative and judicial bodies on social and family circumstances of the inmate c) Direct intervention through interviews and participation in intervention programs d) Proactive attitudeSpecial Remarks or Comments
Yes, we have psychologists, social pedagogues (social educators) and social workers who are (most of them) at the same time case managers responsible for groups of prisoners. Because of lack of these profiles of professionals, some case managers also come from other professions in the field of social studies. Sizes of the groups of prisoners per one case manager are different depending on the type of correctional institution/type of inmates, but also on the actual occupancy of working places, which is not the same for all regions. On average, ratio is around 20 convicted prisoners per one case manager, or around 25 prisoners in total (all categories) per one case manager. It is important to emphasize that those professional all have additional tasks, as described in answer to second question.What are the tasks of psychologists/social workers/ case managers?
There are only a small number of working places which are specified for only one of these three professions - specific jobs for psychologists (for example risk assessment, psychological assistance), for social workers (for example preparation of post-release), or social pedagogue (for example risk assessment, modification of behaviour). These specified working places for mentioned three experts exist only in Diagnostic centre in Zagreb and in in bigger correctional facilities within units for admitting/releasing prisoners. Most of the working places in treatment departments of correctional facilities combine risk assessment tasks, psychosocial treatment (rehabilitation programs) and case management and are foreseen for all three of mentioned professions. So each of these experts - psychologist, social pedagogue (social educator) or social worker - can be employed at this position. Other profesionals in the field of social studies can also work as case managers, but their additional tasks usually refer to organization of different activities for prisoners: leisure time activities, education, working and occupational activities etc.Special Remarks or Comments
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Psychologists provide both frontline and headquarters services within the National Offender Management Service (NOMS). The majority of Psychologists directly employed by NOMS are Forensic Psychologists (Registered and Trainee). a much smaller number are Counselling, Health and Occupational Psychologists. External providers contracted by NOMS to deliver particular services may also employ psychologists. The predominant example of this being the National Health Service (NHS) for mental health and personality disorder provision. The number of psychologists directly employed by NOMS to deliver frontline services in prisons is currently 530. This figure does not include vacancies, or the 'benchmarking' of Psychology Services which is due to report in August 2015. The number of prisoners held in prison in England and Wales is on average 84,000. Not all prisoners will receive psychology services, as provision is linked to risk and need. Those prisoners identified as being the highest risk of harm to themselves and/or others, at risk of serious reoffending, those convicted of sexual and violent offences, those with personality disorders and indeterminate sentence prisoners are most likely to receive services.What are the tasks of psychologists/social workers/ case managers?
The majority of Psychologists directly employed by NOMS and delivering frontline services are Forensic Psychologists (Registered and Trainee). Work completed by Forensic Psychologists is varied, but largely entails interventions, assessments, research, consultancy and training. Interventions delivered include the more complex accredited Offending Behaviour Programmes, working with those offenders convicted of sexual and serious violent offences and individually designed one-to one interventions, tailored to the specific needs of the prisoner. Psychological assessments contribute to understanding what needs and risk factors are relevant to offenders and their offending, with a view to informing pathways to rehabilitation, risk management and release. Research is carried out by psychologists to inform both organisational and academic questions. Psychologists also provide advice and guidance regarding applications from external researchers wishing to complete research in prisons. A broad range of consultancy services are provided by psychologists. These can include providing advice and guidance to prison staff in their management of the most challenging behaviours exhibited by offenders, developing policy and methodology, advising on risk and negotiation for serious incidents, providing needs analyses to inform the provision of wider services, service development and liaising with prison governors on a range of matters, including managing and reducing institutional violence and decisions relating to Release on Temporary Licence. Working with prisoners and staff affected by suicide and self-harm is also a key part of the work of Psychologists. This may involve supporting prisoners at risk and contributing to processes aimed at protecting those who are vulnerable and liaising and providing support to staff working with these prisoners. Psychologists are also involved in the provision of staff training. Special Remarks or Comments
Yes. The ratios are approximately 100-150 prisoners per psychologist, 100-150 prisoners per social worker, and approximately 30-50 prisoners per senior prison officer.What are the tasks of psychologists/social workers/ case managers?
The work of the psychologist is a combination of mental health work as well as the alteration work that strives to reduce recidivism. His/her tasks include helping out in situations of crisis, giving counsel if needed in case of changes in the term of punishment, and diagnosing. The social worker's task is then again to support the prisoner when facing problems related to social issues of any kind. The social workers are mostly involved in child and family work (such as matters related to child protection), money-related concerns and are involved in the cooperation with other authorities. The senior prison officers are considered to be those who plan the prisoner's term of punishments (in the assessment center) and those who supervise each prisoner in his/her unit. He/she monitors the progress of the prisoner's term of punishment, keep a log on the prisoners and give them advice in different mattersSpecial Remarks or Comments
Yes, we have psychologists and social workers in our prison system. Psychologists and social workers can be case managers. In our prisons 25 social workers and 28 psychologists work. So we have 40 prisoners per psychologist and 44 prisoners per social worker.What are the tasks of psychologists/social workers/ case managers?
tasks of psychologist: crisis intervention, diagnosis/prognosis/risk assessment, individual and group treatments (e.g. R & R); psychotherapy, casemanagement (e.g. responsibility for preparing the sentence plan and implementation of the defined measures), administration, project development and coordination, organisational development, performance of trainings for prison and probation staff, contribution towards selection of personnel tasks of social worker: individual and group treatments for example groups for violent offenders or social training; casemanagement (e.g. responsibility for preparing the sentence plan and implementation of the defined measures); administration, transition management, cooperation with NGOs, project development and coordination, public relationSpecial Remarks or Comments
In the Italian penitentiary system, we can find three professionals who correspond to the workers of your interest: the social worker, the psychologist and the educator (who could correspond to a case manager). They all interact with each other in the 'scientific observations' of the offender's behaviour and personality, which is provided for by article 13 of the Italian Penitentiary Act and is carried out throughout the execution of the penal sentence of finally convicted offenders. Educators (whose current complete denomination in the Italian Penitentiary syste is 'Juridical-Pedagogical Officers'), Social Workers (currently named Social Work Officers) and Psychologists are full members of the so-called 'treatment and observation team', a multi-professional team presided over by the Prison Governor, and they participate in the drafting of the final report setting the plan of treatment and rehabilitation for each finally sentenced prisoner. What are the tasks of psychologists/social workers/ case managers?
1. The Educators work inside prisons within the so-called 'pedagogical sector'. The Italian legislation gives the Educators the task of secretary to the above-mentioned multi-disciplinary team; in that capacity, they are provided with all the information gathered by other team members useful for planning an adequate individualized treatment program. Because of their continuous relations with inmates, educators are therefore the mainstay professionals for the activities of personality observation and of treatment planning. The Juridical-Pedagogical Officers' work focuses on the knowledge and the survey of needs of the inmates, as well as on networking with other prison professionals for the monitoring of the inmates' treatment plans progress. Their operational tools are individual or group interviews with prisoners as well as rehabilitation activities, which they coordinate. Interviews with prisoners are not scheduled, but they occur according to the caseload of every professional and to the organisational requirements, and upon the user's request to the penitentiary police staff working in detention wings. As an experiment, in some prisons prisoners can have direct access to interviews with educators in scheduled days and times, with the aim of eliminating any intermediation and strengthening relations between inmates and educator. The main elements of the penitentiary rehabilitation treatment (that is: cultural, leisure and sport activities, work, religion and family relations) allow the educator to observe and monitor the offender's behaviour and attitudes in those various situations. Summarizing, in terms of the Italian Penitentiary Act, the duties of the educators are: - activity of offenders observation; - organisation of the library service; - participation in the commission for drafting the prison internal regulations; - participation in the disciplinary board; - participation in the commission for cultural, leisure and sport activities; - upon the prison governor's delegation: induction interviews participation in commission for the control of food; - drafting of periodical reports to the supervisory judges on offenders behaviour and progress; - coordination of the activities of treatment provided for by the penal establishment project; - development of the network for improvement of contacts with local bodies and organisations. 2. The Social Worker (whose tasks and functions are similar to those ones of probation officers of other European jurisdictions) is based in the local Offices for the Execution of Sentences in the Community, structures of the Ministry of Justice which are situated, in general, outside the prisons. Those officers work both in the community and in prisons. In the latter case, they participate in the observation of the offenders' personality by participating in the observation team activities and through interviews with inmates, mainly aimed at analyzing and assessing the offenders' family relations and work situation and, more in general, their links with the local community. In particular, the social surveys carried out by the social workers involve various actors: the offenders' families, their employers, the local healthcare services, third sector bodies and associations and any other agency which would contribute to a successful social reintegration. As for those offenders still at liberty, who apply to be granted a measure alternative to detention, the social workers carry out tasks of observation and advice to the Judiciary relevant to the decisions still to be made, while for those ones who serving their sentence in the community, the social workers perform tasks of supervision and support to those offenders. In consequence of a very recent norm of June 2015 (decree of the President of the Council of Ministers no. 84 of 15 June 2015) the tasks and duties of the Social Worker in the Ministry of Justice could be the object of meaningful modifications, because of the imminent establishment of a new Department of Juveniles Community Justice, which will include the local Officers for the Execution of Sentences in the Community with all their staff. 3. Psychologists can be either employed by the Penitentiary Administration or self-employed professionals working in prisons for a specified amount of monthly hours, set in individual agreements undersigned with the Penitentiary Administration. They make therapeutic-rehabilitative interventions with inmates and, for finally sentenced sex offenders on minors, they carry out a specific treatment provided for by the law no 172 of 1 October 2012. The psychologist's activity is mainly aimed at making a prognosis on the likelihood of recidivism as well as at motivating the offenders in their participation in reintegration plans. In particular, they work on the inamte's sense of guilt and of resonsibility and tend, along with other prison professionals, to trigger a self-criticism mechanism within the offender. The interviews with users do not occur on a regular basis, but they rather depend upon the monthly amount of hours available to the psychologists as well as on the prisoner's needs. The tasks and duties of the psychologist are: - collaboration in the activities of observation of offenders; - support to the inmates; - participation in the induction services (reception in prison of newly arrived inmates); - participation in the integrated disciplinary board for the enforcement of the 'special surveillance' on prisoners who are deemed as dangerous for order and security; - drafting and expertise upon request of judiciary and/or of the Penitentiary Administration. In some prisons, the presence of full-time psychologists has enabled the establishment of psycho-therapeutic group-works or workshops, besides regular individual interviews. Special Remarks or Comments
Yes, psychologists/social workers/case managers are employed in Latvian prison system. Currently, in the resocialisation concept of the persons sentenced with imprisonment it is established that there are 50 juveniles or 75 inmates per psychologist; 175 inmates per social worker; 60 inmates or 45 juveniles per case manager.What are the tasks of psychologists/social workers/ case managers?
The tasks of psychologists: To offer consultations (individual and group); To carry out psycho diagnostic (if necessary); To deliver crisis intervention; To carry out risk and needs assessment of an inmate; To conduct social rehabilitation and correction programs (if the necessary training has been received and the appropriate documentation has been acquired). The tasks of social workers: To determine the needs and social problems of inmates'; To assess the risks and needs of inmates; To identify and raise resources, solve the social problems of inmates, carry out interventions of social significance; To take part in the preparation and implementation of inmate's resocialisation plan (sentence execution measure plan), to take part in evaluation of the results of the inmate's resocialisation and in the adjustment of resocialisation plan in the field of social work; To carry out evaluation of social circumstances, social problem solving, the identification and raising of resources; To conduct group classes for inmates in the framework of a resocialisation program; To inform inmates about social services and possibility to receive social aid after their release from the place of imprisonment; To help reconnect with relatives, to help with dealing with such formalities as arranging documentation regarding retirement/disability/loss of supporter/pension, to help address the question of place of residence; To organize and manage improvement and reestablishment of inmate social skills and acquisition of new skills; To organise and participate in the officiation of prison weddings; To provide answers according to their competences to the applications of individuals, state, local municipality institutions and imprisoned persons. The tasks of case managers: To carry out risk and needs assessment of an inmate; To develop a resocialisation plan and ensure its implementation; To prepare documentation for evaluation committee and court about inmate's participation in planned resocialisation measures/events and about the results; To examine the disciplinary case materials of inmate and offer suggestions on which type of sentence would be most suitable; To manage resocialisation programs (if the necessary training has been received and suitable documentation has been acquired); To inform inmates about their rights and duties; To carry out individual resocialisation work with inmates; To organise free time events for inmates; To examine applications regarding resocialisation of inmates; To gather information on the relationships between inmates in the same unit, to carry out measures to prevent or stop possible conflicts; To collaborate with state and local municipality institutions when preparing inmate for release.Special Remarks or Comments
Psychologist services exist in all Lithuanian penitentiary institutions. Currently 42 psychologists are employed. The ratio: 195 inmates and detainees per 1 psychologist (prison population on 30 June 2015 was 8200). 200 social workers are employed in the penitentiary system. The ratio: 41 inmates and detainees per 1 social worker. There are no case managers in Lithuania.What are the tasks of psychologists/social workers/ case managers?
Main tasks for psychologists: 1. psychologic assessment of an inmate's (detainee's) personality; 2. work with newly accepted detainees (inmates) – psychologic diagnostics, training of adaptation skills; 3. training of social skills of detainees (inmates); 4. investigation of microclimate of different groups of detainees (inmates); 5. assessment of personal needs and risks, and investigation of psychosocial status of detainees (inmates); 6. prevention of psychologic crisis, suicide and self-injury; 7. individual psychotherapy; 8. recommendations to the penitentiary administration on individual social adaptation (rehabilitation) measures to of detainees (inmates); 9. recommendations to the penitentiary administration on allocation of detainees (inmates) to cells, units and transfer to other penitentiary institutions; 10. education of employees and detainees (inmates) on mental health; 11. organization and implementation of programs addressed to target groups of inmates. Main tasks for social workers: 1. organization and implementation of social rehabilitation of inmates; 2. assistance to inmates on social issues with respect to their individual needs and personal problems; 3. assessment of re-offending risk, identification of criminogenic factors and drafting of personal correctional plan for an inmate; 4. observation and registration of changes in an inmate's behavior, motivation to participate in different programs relevant to a specific inmate; 5. organization of different occupation activities; 6. implementation of individual correctional programs and educational activities; 7. preparation for release.Special Remarks or Comments
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Yes. At present there are 70 psychologists that make up Psychological Services. Of those 17 are Registered Practitioner Psychologists, whilst the other 53 are at various stages of training on the routes to Practitioner Psychologist. Taking the prison population as being approximately 7500, this equates to a ratio of 1 psychologist for every 107 prisoners. It is difficult to estimate the number of Prison Based Social Workers (PBSW) as they are supplied by separate local authority social work departments under a service level agreement. Numbers vary from establishment to establishment. It is estimated that there are around 80 Integrated Case Management staff working across the estate. Taking the prison population as being approximately 7500, this equates to a ratio of 1 ICM worker for every 94 prisoners.What are the tasks of psychologists/social workers/ case managers?
PSYCHOLOGY The main tasks carried out by psychologists include (but are not limited to): implementing offending behaviour programmes, including assessment, selection, delivery and the completion of post-programme reports; risk assessment and contribution to groups that focus on related risk management strategies; research; training; 1-1 work with prisoners; supervision of trainees; to work as part of prison-based multi-disciplinary teams; consultation with local management to identify population-specific tasks/areas that psychology could assist with, and the delivery of those identified tasks. SOCIAL WORK There is no specific statutory basis for the provision of Prison Based Social Work (PBSW) in prisons. Social Work Departments have a general responsibility to "promote social welfare" (section 12 of the Social Work (Scotland) Act 1968). These services to prisoners are provided in recognition that prisoners may continue to exercise those civil rights that are not expressly removed by virtue of their imprisonment. The Scottish Government has an interest in the provision of efficient and effective throughcare services to serving and released prisoners. This requires collaboration between all service providers to ensure the development of an integrated approach and continuity of service provision between prison and community based services- particularly in relation to those prisoners who are subject to formal supervision on release and/or are deemed to pose a risk of harm. PBSW are regarded as providing the critical link between these services. PBSW staff are required to undertake a range of mandatory responsibilities and duties (e.g. preparation of parole reports, notifications of the release of Schedule 1 Offenders) as part of legislation or issued in the form of circulars by Scottish Government. The roles and responsibilities of PBSW are detailed in the National Objectives for Social Work Services in the Criminal Justice System – a Scottish Government circular -the throughcare element of which was last updated in 2004. Scottish Government brought out new guidance for community based Criminal Justice Social Work Services – the National Outcomes and Standards for Social Work Services in the Criminal Justice System – in 2010. INTEGRATED CASE MANAGEMENT Although primarily facilitated by SPS, the ICM process is jointly owned by SPS, Scottish Government (SG) and the Association of Directors of Social Work (ADSW). The current ICM process is based on a two-tiered approach with offenders managed through either a standard or enhanced version: Standard ICM is applied to all prisoners who are not subject to post-release supervision, i.e. the majority of prisoners sentenced to less than four years imprisonment (with the exception of sex offenders; all sex offenders sentenced to six months or more are subject to statutory post-release supervision). Enhanced ICM is applied to all prisoners sentenced to a period of imprisonment of four years or more (and all sex offenders sentenced to six months or more) and all prisoners subject to post release supervision. In basic terms, the components of both the standard and enhanced processes are described below: Standard ICM: Core Screen (within 72 hours of admission) [Identifies needs in areas such as]: - social care; - access to benefits; - family contact; - childcare; - resettlement; - employment; - learning and skills; and - substance misuse. Referral to service providers from Core Screen Community Integration Plan - used to monitor actions from referrals - reviewed four weeks prior to release - signposting for voluntary throughcare Enhanced ICM: Core Screen (within 72 hours of admission) [Identifies needs in areas such as] - social care; - access to benefits; - family contact; - childcare; - resettlement; - employment; - learning and skills; and - substance misuse. Referral to service providers from Core Screen Community Integration Plan used to monitor action from referrals Risk Assessment (Social Work) LS/CMI; RM2000; SA07... Risk Assessment Meeting (prison/social work) Initial Case Conference (admission + 6 months) Case Management Plan (access to programmes) Annual update of Risk Assessment (recurring) Review of Case Management Plan (recurring) Annual Case Conference (recurring) [Progression Risk Assessment] [Home Background Report] [Progression Case Management Plan] Pre-release Risk Assessment Pre-release Case Conference Transitional Case Management Plan Community Integration Plan [Risk Management Plan] [MAPPA; OLR; and RoSH cases]Special Remarks or Comments
We have psychologists, social workers and case managers in our prison system. The ratio varies from location to location. At some locations psychologists and social workers are also case managers. We wish that our standards will be 60 cases per psychologists and social workers and 20 per pedagogue. In 2014 average number of inmates were 1488. The number of psychologists was 6 (248 inmates per psychologist), social workers 9 (165 inmates per social worker), pedagogues 46 (32 inmates per case manager).What are the tasks of psychologists/social workers/ case managers?
PSYCHOLOGIST Tasks of psychologists are to make an initial conversation and assessment on admission. Provide psychological treatment (crises interventions, sexual delinquent treatment, ..) Participate on expert group together with social workers, case managers, security staff and instructors (responsible for work of inmates) and provide decisions on sentence planning and evaluate execution of sentence. CASE MANAGER "Case Managers" (in our system named Adviser-pedagogue) are particularly active in carrying out prison sentences. In pre-sentence custody professionals provide assistance in addressing their family issues and other issues arising from the imposition and enforcement of custody. If necessary, they write reports for courts and for other institutions, etc.. Qualification requirements for Case Managers are; University degree relevant social, pedagogical or psychological sciences, professional examination in administrative procedure and a number of other trainings to successfully work with prisoners. Tasks that we expect them to perform are: The prison programmes are carried out by treatment service professionals. Conditions for participation in the programmes are: prisoners´ consent to be included in the programme and their active participation. After admission phase the prison draws up an individual treatment programme (sentence plan) for each prisoner, defining all the activities and programmes, in which the prisoner shall participate, the regime of serving the sentence – security classification, the privileges, work, education, contacts with persons outside the prison, cooperation with relatives, preparation for the release, inclusion in small groups (which is led by pedagogue).. All those tasks are performed by a case manager. Further, Mentoring, organization and cooperation with external bodies and institutions (Social work centres, courts, Ombudsman, etc), management and decision making in complex administrative procedures,… SOCIAL WORKER Tasks of social workers are mainly social work focus on preparation for release. They help prisoners in solving housing, employment and financial problems. They intensively contact with social work centres and other outside institutions in the field of resettlement. The preparation to release start immediately after imprisonment by defining individual needs and aims. The most common activities are the actual social situation problem solving, stress managment counselilling, social counselling, family skills and employment support during the imprisonment and after release. Social workers work with the prisoners individually, searching different possibilities to help and support them according to their needs.Special Remarks or Comments
Supported by the Justice Programme of the European Union