Foreign prisoners comprise a large and increasing proportion of prisoners within European prisons. They pose a significant challenge to prison and probation services, to work on their rehabilitation and resettlement and to reduce the risk of reoffending. The implementation of EU Framework Decisions, on the transfer of European prisoners between countries (FD 909) along with the transfer of community sanctions and measures (FD947) will improve the effective rehabilitation and resettlement of this group within Europe. Though, this should not deflect attention from the large proportion of foreign prisoners and offenders who will continue to be managed in the country in which they have offended. The Council of Europe Recommendations on Foreigners in Prison, CM/Rec 2012(12) provides an important framework to guide the work of both prison and probation services in managing this group.