Prisons in Europe are not only very different within one country, but also vary much between countries and regions. Many questions arise when it comes to planning, constructing, renovating prison facilities. Are they fit for their purpose in the 21st century? Are current prisons unjustifiably expensive? How could savings be made on real estate? How could prison premises become structurally more efficient and how to deal with underlying drivers of inefficiency? How could we be more effective with a better design and location choice? Some countries in Europe replace old, expensive to maintain and ill equipped prisons with new buildings. What is their new for old strategy? What are the experiences with private public sector arrangements? How do we introduce more flexibility into real estate – enabling us to better respond to changes in the prison population? How could we realize more efficient prison buildings – with lower running costs, reductions in maintenance spending and an intelligent use of technology.