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Introduction: In the course of a revision of our allocation practice in our state we are researching on different possibilities for Screening the prisoners. One of the results of JCN was the necessity to have a screening before starting the process of diagnostics.
yesWhich professions are involved in preliminary work, the screening itself and the diagnostics afterwards? If it differs from case to case, what are the criteria?
In Finland assessment is conducted at least in three phases. When the prisoner is starting his/hers prison terms, he/she is to be assessed. First by actuarial risk assessment-tool (ARAT- static risk level of reoffending), secondly by security assessment and thirdly by individual interview of both static and dynamic risks and strenghts. The depth (1-3) of risk-need assessment (OasyS –based) depends on ARAT-level, the length of prison terms, security assessment, the seriousness of the present or previous crimes, and the number previous convictions. After assessment the individual plan for prison terms will be completed and placement to appropriate prison chosen. Later, during imprisonment, the prisoner him/herself or the prison staff will bring up an application of placement to open of closed prison, that is lower or higher controlled institution. Then the assessment is focused to the prisoner’s primary reoffending level, actions already taken reducing general and particual risk of reoffending (realization of plan) and a updated security assessment (range of security matters). Placement is usually accomplished in Assessment Centres * Assessment centre will produce security assessment. Named member of staff (Assessment Centre or probation service) will conduct the static assessment of the recidivism-level and risk-need -assessment (level 1-3). If the offender is beginning the prison terms from freedom, the assessment is mostly conducted in probation, if he/she comes from remand prison assessment will be carried out in Assessment Centre. The staff have higher education in social sciences, psychology or pedagogy.Could you provide a sample of scales or instruments underlying?
Acturial Risk Assessment tool is based on SIR-R 1, revised items scaled to Finnish prison population. Scale is Items: 1. Current offence 2. Age at admission 3. Previous incarceration(s) 4. Revocation or forfeiture (parole, conditional sentence, supervised probationary freedom, monitoring sentence) 5. Act of escape 6. Age at first (adult) conviction 7. Previous convictions for assault 8. Interval between previous release and present offence 9. Total length of previous incarceration(s) 10. Previous convictions for drunken driving 11. Previous convictions for sex offences 12. Previous convictions for aggrravated theft 13. Previous institution where released (open – closed) points level reoffending rate -7 or less high (~84%) -6 > -2 medium high (~65%) -1 > 4 medium low (~54%) +5 or more low (~36%)
All inmates of Catalan prisons, whether they are preventive or sentenced, are assessed with a protocol that placed fourth predicting behaviours criteria: self-directed violence, intra-institutional violence, violent recidivism and breach of sentence. This protocol is called Riscanvi. The screening protocol includes a scale with 10 risk factors using an algorithm offers dichotomous outcomes: high risk or low risk. If one of the criteria for predicting risk is high on the scale screening must fill out a new scale with 43 risk factors, the result of which is final under three possibilities: low, moderate or high. In specific crimes, it is recommended to evaluate specific prediction scales by the criteria of violent criminal recidivism (SVR-20 Boer, Hart et alt., HCR-20 Webster, Douglas et alt., PCL , Hare, or SARA, Kropp, Hart et alt.)).Which professions are involved in preliminary work, the screening itself and the diagnostics afterwards? If it differs from case to case, what are the criteria?
All professionals in the field of rehabilitation, psychologists, criminologists-lawyer, educator and social worker are involved in the social protocol of the scales Riscanvi. All they include evidence on the scale depending on the discipline that evaluates the risk factor.Could you provide a sample of scales or instruments underlying?
Attached is an example of the scales RC and RC-S-C. SVR-20 scales, HCR-20, PCL and SARA are also instruments used for risk assessment.
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All prisoners receive a Core Screen within 72 hours of reception (see Q3). Prisoners are examined by a nurse on reception and see a medical doctor with 24 hours of reception. SPS is currently reviewing its reception screening processes and is piloting a revised screening instrument in two prisons. The pilot is testing the "Individual Admission Meeting".Which professions are involved in preliminary work, the screening itself and the diagnostics afterwards? If it differs from case to case, what are the criteria?
Reception staff are SPS prison officers. Doctors and Nurses are National Health Service (NHS) staff.Could you provide a sample of scales or instruments underlying?
CORE SCREEN Surname: Establishment: Forename(s): Prison Number: EDL: Date of Birth: Sentenced: Remand: Admission Date: HDC Qualifying Date: Serving Less than 30 Days Serving 30 Days or More Long Term Prisoner Subject to Post Release Supervision 1st Review Date: 2nd Review Date: 3rd Review Date: Pre-Release Review Date: (ALL SECTIONS MUST BE COMPLETED) General Details National Insurance No: Index Offence: Sentence Length: Statutory Supervision / Monitoring: PSS level: First time in custody? Yes No Are you aware of any Outstanding Charges? Yes No Are you aware of any Outstanding Warrants? Yes No Use notes page to record details Are you aware of any Outstanding Fines? Yes No Responsivity Issues Do you have any disability that may affect you accessing services? Yes No Please give details Are you concerned with the ability to practice your religion or beliefs? Yes No Please give details Is there anything from your cultural background that you feel may cause problems for you within Prison (language barriers etc)? Yes No Please give details Are you aware of any problems you may have with other prisoners whilst in prison? Yes No Please give details CS FORM SPS 2006/FIRST EDITION Page 2 of 8 Social Care Needs 1. Accommodation What were your living circumstances before coming into prison? (please tick) • 1. Owner / Occupier 2. Local Authority 3. Private landlord 4. Living with Parents/ Family / Friends 5. Residential Care 6. Supported Accommodation 7. Hostel 8. Homeless If answered 2, 3 or 6 above, Do you currently have a tenancy in your name? Yes No • (If yes, send Tenancy Closure referral to Internal Accommodation provider via the Social Care domain) Were you receiving any assistance with accommodation issues before custody? Yes No • (If yes, send Previous Assistance referral to Internal Accommodation provider via the Social Care domain) Is your intended accommodation on release the same as given on admission? Yes No • If No, please give details (City / town, district and postcode if known) – Record information on PR2 for PBSW information. • Do you require help with accommodation issues in any of the following areas? (Please tick one of the following) Housing Benefit Tenancy Mortgage Homeless on Release (If any of the above are selected send Information and Advice referral to Internal Accommodation Advisor via the Social Care domain) 2. Benefits and Finance Were you in receipt of any benefits immediately before coming into prison? Yes No • (If yes, send Benefit Closure referral to Jobcentre Plus via Social Care domain) Would you like a referral to Jobcentre Plus for benefits advice? Yes No • (If yes, send Benefits Advice referral to Jobcentre Plus via Social Care domain) Do you have any outstanding debts and would you like any advice in dealing with debt and finance issues? • Yes No (If yes, send Debt / Finance Advice referral to relevant service provider via Social Care domain) CS FORM SPS 2006/FIRST EDITION Page 3 of 8 Resettlement Needs 3. Family contact during prison and on release Were your family circumstances unstable or problematic prior to custody? Yes No • (If yes and prisoner wishes support, send Relationships Support referral to relevant service provider via the Resettlement Needs domain) 3.1 Childcare Do you have any childcare issues? Yes No • (If yes and prisoner wishes support, send Childcare Issues referral via Resettlement Needs domain) Do you have any children who are cared for by a local authority? Yes No • (If yes, send Child under Local Authority care referral to Social Work via Resettlement Needs domain) Is your access restricted by court order / other? Yes No • (If yes, send Restricted Child access referral to Social Work via Resettlement Needs domain) 3.2 Contact During Custody Are any of your visitors’ disabled or have special needs, or will they have any other issues that make it difficult to visit? Yes No • (If yes, send Prison Access Issue referral to appropriate provider via Resettlement Needs domain) Do you want help and support to develop and maintain contact with your family and friends either during custody or after release? Yes No • (If yes, send Maintain Family Contact referral to FCDO via Resettlement Needs domain) 4. Resettlement Supports 4.1 Social Work If subject to statutory supervision please make offender aware of the need to work with the Social Work team and send Statutory Supervision referral to the Prison Based Social Work Team • • Are there issues you need to discuss with a prison Social Worker? Yes No (If yes, send Confidential Issues referral to PBSW via Resettlement Needs domain) Do you wish to access Voluntary Throughcare provision from social work? Yes No • (If yes, send Voluntary Throughcare referral to prison Social Work team via Resettlement Needs domain) CS FORM SPS 2006/FIRST EDITION Page 4 of 8 4.2 Chaplaincy Support Would you like to speak in confidence about anything to one of the prison Chaplains? Yes No • (If yes, send referral to Chaplaincy Support via Resettlement Needs domain) Were you receiving any support from a church or faith community prior to custody? Yes No • (If yes, send referral to Chaplaincy Support via Resettlement Needs domain) 4.3 Community Supports Were you receiving support or in contact with any other community or voluntary agencies? Yes No • Do you require contact to be made with any of these agencies? Yes No • (If yes, check with most relevant internal provider for appropriate referral route) 5. Employment If employed prior to custody, do you require assistance in maintaining your job while in custody? Yes No • (If ‘yes’, send Employer Contact referral to Job Centre Plus via LSE domain) Would you like advice or assistance on getting a job on release? Yes No • (If ‘yes’, send Job Advice referral to relevant service provider via LSE domain) 6. Learning and Skills • Are you interested in attending or hearing more about learning/skills training when in prison? Yes No (If ‘yes’ send Learning Interest referral to Learning Provider via LSE domain) • If you were involved in any qualifications/courses/skills training before coming into prison or on a previous sentence, would you like to continue with this learning? Yes No (If ‘yes’, send Continuation of Learning referral to Learning Provider via LSE domain) • Do you feel you need help with working with computers, using numbers or reading or writing? Yes No (If ‘yes’, send Core Skills referral to Learning Provider via LSE domain) 7. Substance Misuse Do you have a problem with any of the following? • • 1. Drugs 2. Alcohol 3. Solvents If you have answered ‘Yes’ to any of the above would you like to meet with a Caseworker? Yes No (if ‘yes’, and are a YOI or female offender (any sentence length) or male offender serving 31 days or more, send Substance Misuse referral to Enhanced Addictions Casework Service via Substance Misuse domain) If you are a smoker would you like help to stop? Yes No • (If ‘yes’, send Smoking Cessation referral to Enhanced Addictions Casework Service via Substance Misuse domain) CS FORM SPS 2006/FIRST EDITION Page 5 of 8 8. Offending Related Behaviour Only complete this section if the prisoner has a sentence of at least 12 months. 8.1 Cognitive Skills / Constructs • Have you ever used offending to help you to solve your problems? Yes No (If ‘yes’, move to the next question) (If ‘no’, go to Section 8.2) • Would you like help to further develop your problem solving skills? Yes No (If ‘yes’, send Cognitive Skills / Constructs referral to Programmes Staff via Offending Behaviour domain) • (If ‘no’, provide information leaflet and explain about self-referral if they change their mind in the future) 8.2 Anger Management Have you ever been in a situation where you responded angrily and, as a result, came into contact with the law? Yes No (If ‘yes’, move to the next question) (If ‘no’, go to Section 9) • Would you be interested in finding out about how to manage your anger more effectively? Yes No (If ‘yes’, send Anger Programme referral to Programmes Staff via Offending Behaviour domain) (If ‘no’ motivation at the above question, provide information leaflet and explain about the self-referral process) CS FORM SPS 2006/FIRST EDITION Page 6 of 8 9. Additional Information Are there any additional concerns that have not been addressed during this interview or has the prisoner • evidenced any behaviours or made statements that have caused concern? Yes No Please provide details. If at any time during this interview the Prisoner gave you cause for concern with their behaviour or responses that would lead you to think that they may at risk of self harm or suicide then commence the Act 2 Care process by providing a safe environment, discussing this with your line manager. Additional Notes Ensure that all relevant information is recorded in the appropriate domain. CS FORM SPS 2006/FIRST EDITION Page 7 of 8 ACTION SUMMARY SHEET Record summary of needs in this section for transfer to PR2 including any immediate needs identified. Social Care Domain 1. Accommodation Tenancy Closure Referral Previous Assistance Referral Information and Advice Referral 2. Benefits and Finance Benefit Closure Referral Benefits Advice Referral Debt / Finance Advice Referral Resettlement Domain 3. Family Contact During Prison and on Release Relationships Support Referral Childcare Issues Referral Child Under Local Authority Care Referral Prison Access Issue Referral Maintain Family Contact Referral Restricted Child Access Referral 4. Resettlement Supports Statutory Supervision Referral Confidential Issues Referral Voluntary Throughcare Referral Chaplaincy Support Referral Maintain Community Agency Contact Referral LSE Domain 5. Employment Employer Contact Referral Job Advice Referral 6. Learning and Skills Learning Interest Referral Continuation of Learning Referral Core Skills Referral Substance Misuse Domain 7. Substance Misuse Substance Misuse Referral Smoking Cessation Referral Offending Behaviour Domain 8. Offending Related Behaviour Cognitive Skills / Constructs Referral Anger Programme Referral Signed (prisoner): Date: Signed (interviewing officer): PRINT: Date: Information Transferred to PR2 Date: CS FORM SPS 2006/FIRST EDITION Page 8 of 8
In 2015 a new and improved intake assessment process has been implemented in all Danish prisons. The overall purpose of the new processes is to support an earlier and faster uncovering and assessment of new inmates’ challenges and competencies risks and needs so that the period spent in prison is used as ef-fectively as possible and any needed resocialisation efforts are commenced as early on as possible. Upon arrival to the prison – to which the inmate is referred to serve his sentence - he is initially placed in an ‘intake assessment unit’ for assessment of risks and needs. The inmate will normally stay in this unit for 7 days but the stay can be prolonged to up to 3 weeks. The assessment typically consists of the following: Intake interview (in order to uncover any acute problems that need handling immediately) Uncovering of any psychiatric issues and self harm/suicidal risks Risk/needs assessment General information is provided to the inmate A sentence plan is developed Regarding the assessment tools: The interview to uncover psychiatric issues and risks of self harm/suicide is carried out by a prison officer within the first 48 hours after arrival. The semi structured interview must provide answers to 15 predefined questions. If further assessment or treatment is needed this is noted and the inmate is automatically re-ferred to see a nurse or doctor. The risk/needs assessment is formed on the basis of the Canadian LS/RNR tool (level of service/risk need responsivity). The purpose is to provide a reliable, objective and structured, individualized assessment of the risk of recidivism NOT the risk of harm. The risk/needs assessment forms the basis of the sentence plan. In the sentence plan risk/needs and interventions are identified and prioritized. The level of intervention is adjusted so that the higher the risk/needs the higher the level – or intensity – of intervention is provided. If the prison cannot provide the treatment needed the inmate can be transferred to another prison where treatment needs can be met.Which professions are involved in preliminary work, the screening itself and the diagnostics afterwards? If it differs from case to case, what are the criteria?
Intake interview is performed by a prison officer. Uncovering of any psychiatric issues and self harm/suicidal risks is done by a prison officer with some additional training (1 day) or a nurse. Risk/needs assessment is carried out by case managers who are trained social workers and have received specific (4 days) training and are certified as users of the LS/RNR. The sentence plan is developed by the case manager with input and contributions from staff at the intake assessment unit.Could you provide a sample of scales or instruments underlying?
The LS/RNR is patented by MHS Canada and cannot be shared or sampled but MHS can be contacted for further information. The mental health interview form is developed in Denmark but is not translated into English. The Danish version can be provided upon request.
No, we don’t use any such pre-screening to differentiate the diagnostics intensity. All prisoners receive an equal diagnostic/enquiry to determine what risk they have.Which professions are involved in preliminary work, the screening itself and the diagnostics afterwards? If it differs from case to case, what are the criteria?
The diagnostics/enquiry is conducted by a specially trained enquirer/prison officer.Could you provide a sample of scales or instruments underlying?
Yes, no more than 2 months after a person is placed in a prison, risk and necessities assessment is carried out (hereinafter – RNA), based on which , resocialisation plan of that particular inmate is prepared. Assessment is repeated no less that once a year. Assessment is carried out also before the possible conditional release before the end of the sentence.Which professions are involved in preliminary work, the screening itself and the diagnostics afterwards? If it differs from case to case, what are the criteria?
Specialists in the resocialisation field (senior inspector, social worker and psychologist) carry out the RNA. Each of the specialists completes their own section. After they have completed the separate sections, they come together and discuss suggestions regarding the resocialisation plan.Could you provide a sample of scales or instruments underlying?
The RNA instrument consists of three sections. In the first one the criminal offence is described and analysed, it is noted which punishments/sanctions are used due to the internal regulations and which incentives are used based on the attitude of the inmate, e.g., regarding the attitude towards the staff of the place of imprisonment. In the second section social skills, place of residence, education, personal documents and other social issues are described and analysed. In the third section the psychological aspects, e.g., overall behaviour and use of addictive substances, are noted, described and analysed.
The Norwegian Correctional Service does not operate with risk levels such as low, medium, or high risk offenders. However, risk assessments are carried out in several contexts and the assessments require that both the risk of recidivism and the risk of evasion of execution must be taken into consideration. The Execution of Sentences Act contains provisions which require a risk assessment of the specific circumstances of the case, for example section 10 and 11. § 10. Forms of execution Sentences of imprisonment and special criminal sanctions may be executed a) In prisons with a high security level (closed prisons), b) In prisons with a lower security level (open prisons), c) In a prison/halfway house, d) Outside prison subject to special conditions pursuant to section 16, or e) On probation subject to conditions pursuant to section 43 second paragraphs. A department in a prison that has a high security level may be suitably organized for prisoners who have special needs, including persons who are sentenced to a special criminal sanction, or converted to an especially high security level. Sentences may be executed by 24-hour detention in an institution or hospital pursuant to sections 12 and 13. § 11. Committal to prison The Correctional Services shall commit convicted persons directly to prisons with a high security level unless it is otherwise provided pursuant to this Act. Convicted persons should as far as is practically possible and appropriate be committed to a prison in the vicinity of their home district. If special security reasons make it necessary, convicted persons may be committed to a department with an especially high security level pursuant to section 10, second paragraph. The Correctional Services shall consider whether a convicted person may be committed directly to a prison with a lower security level if he or she is sentenced to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years. No decision to make such a committal shall be taken if the purpose of the sentence or security reasons contraindicate it, or there is reason to assume that the convicted person will evade the execution. In special cases a convicted person may be committed directly to a prison with a lower security level when he or she is sentenced to imprisonment for a term exceeding two years. See also the Regulations to the Execution of Sentences Act, paragraph 3-4: § 3-4. Committal to prison A convicted person at liberty who is sentenced to imprisonment for a term of two years or less and who otherwise satisfies the conditions for direct committal to a prison with a lower security level may, however, be committed to a prison with a high security level if this is necessary as a consequence of building or staff conditions or lack of room. Even if there is no objection to doing so from a security aspect, no decision for committal to a prison with a lower security level shall be made if it is contrary to the principle of general deterrence or the general sense of justice. On being committed to prison the convicted person shall be informed of his or her right to apply for a transfer for execution of sentence in his or her home country pursuant to the European Convention of 21 March 1983 No. 1 concerning the transferring of convicted persons, cf. Act relating to the transferring of convicted persons of 20 July 1991 No. 67, or the right to transfer to one of the Nordic countries pursuant to Act relating to the execution of Nordic sentences etc. of 15 November 1963. A social inquiry report of an accused or indicted person may be commissioned by the Prosecutors or by the Court. The report will be compiled the probation office to which the accused / indicted person geographically belongs. If the person is convicted, the Correctional Service will be given access to these reports. This is also the case with any prejudicial assessments which may have been carried out. After the inmate has started serving his/her sentence: The Correctional Service recently started using a new analysis tool, BRIK, which is designed to detect criminogenic factors and reveal the inmate's resources, wishes and needs. It is voluntary for inmates to undergo the analysis. Approximately one third of the units has started using BRIK, the rest will start using it this year. People who are sentenced to preventive detention will be subject to a thorough assessment at the prison where they serve their sentence.Which professions are involved in preliminary work, the screening itself and the diagnostics afterwards? If it differs from case to case, what are the criteria?
As noted in question 1, The Execution of Sentences Act contains provisions which require a risk assessment of the specific circumstances of the case. Norwegian Correctional Service is organised on three levels; central, regional and local. It is the Directors at the regional level who decide on the choice of prison or probation office for the inmates . BRIK: So far 135 employees have completed training at the Correctional Service of Norway Staff Academy in order to become a certified instructor. Their professional background varies.Could you provide a sample of scales or instruments underlying?
Decisions regarding which form of execution the inmate shall be subject to (for example high or low security prison) are based on the Execution of Sentences Act. BRIK-analyses are conducted with the help of an IT-system.
All the detained persons at the moment of incarceration, are medically diagnosed (nurse, prison medic) and psychologically (psychologist an psychiatrist). Moreover, an interview is assured by the management of the establishment, in the first 48 hours from incarceration, in order to evaluate and estimate the potential dangerousness of the individual.Which professions are involved in preliminary work, the screening itself and the diagnostics afterwards? If it differs from case to case, what are the criteria?
The psychological and medical diagnostic is done by a technical team composed of a chief medic, a psychiatrist, a psychologist and a nurse. The diagnostic linked to the danger risk, is established by the technical team in consultation with the management of the establishment.Could you provide a sample of scales or instruments underlying?
There are no pre-established evaluation scales or criteria that could facilitate the diagnostics.