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Purposeful activities 84.—(1) The Governor must provide a range of purposeful activities for prisoners which, so far as reasonably practicable, takes into account— (a) the interests and need of prisoners to obtain skills and experience which will be of use to them after their release; and (b) the requirements of the operation and maintenance of the prison. (2) “Purposeful activities” include— (a) work; (b) education of any kind, including physical education; (c) counselling and other rehabilitative programmes; (d) vocational training; and (e) work placements outside the prison. (3) The Scottish Ministers may, in relation to work placements outside the prison provided under paragraph (2)(e), specify in a direction— (a) the groups or categories of prisoners who may be allowed to undertake such placements; (b) the circumstances in which, and the conditions subject to which, such placements may be provided to prisoners; and (c) the conditions which will apply to any prisoner or group or category of prisoners undertaking such placements. (4) In carrying out the duty under paragraph (1) the Governor— (a )must arrange, so far as reasonably practicable, a programme of educational classes to provide prisoners with an opportunity to pursue their interests and needs; and (b) may arrange the provision of counselling (including group work activity) which is appropriate to the needs of prisoners. In 2013 the SPS endorsed the findings of two significant review documents, “The Organisational Review” and “Delivering a Strategy for Purposeful Activity in the Scottish Prison Service”. These documents established the case for change and provide the basis for much of our current thinking. Going forward, these documents are central to informing our direction of change and will influence what we do and how we do it across the full spectrum of prison life. While these reviews have provided the case for change (the what) a new framework focusses on the actions (the how) we (the SPS) intend to take in order to secure change. The framework provides the link between the Purposeful Activity (PA) programme of work and the need to develop supportive prison environments. This includes taking steps to maximise the potential for individual change, while recognising the differing contexts within which PA is delivered. Essential to this will be developing a better understanding of the complex populations which prisons hold and the competing demands and needs of these groups while accepting that our prison estate has contrasting physical configurations (Victorian structures through to modern prisons). In developing the framework the following Purpose and Aims have been set: • Advance prison regimes and partnerships to support the effective delivery of PA • Drive rehabilitation activities to be at the core of our business • Provide clarity and direction for the future leadership of Purposeful Activity • Develop the skills of our staff to support the effective delivery of PA • Support the development of positive prison environments that will improve the implementation of all PA Projects The delivery model requires every establishment to support this approach, to direct resources, play to strengths and acknowledge the reality that not all prisoners will work nor is it in society’s best interest to make them work. Rather our individual support plans will place the person at the centre. They will seek to build strengths and assets which best suit individual circumstances as identified within their individual support plans. The PA delivery model supports the delivery of both individual support plans, generated as part of our Case Management pathway, and the Holistic model as described in the Organisational Review. It is envisaged that a uniformed approach will provide structure and rigor to PA delivery across all sites, it will set a clear direction and provide guidance to establishments. The model therefore represents a significant step forward for SPS. It aims to ensure that Purposeful Activity should be viewed through a different lens, recognising that our population is complex with widely differing needs– which ultimately requires that we individualise our approach. The framework and delivery model therefore seeks to align the future delivery of Purposeful Activity to the SPS Mission of “Helping to build a safer Scotland—UnlockingPotential—Transforming Lives”, specifically achieving this through the SPS commitment to adopt an asset-based person centred approach. The delivery model will: • Advocate for and establish a Leadership Strategy which places rehabilitation activities at the core of our business; • Establish a clear bond between the effective delivery of Purposeful Activity and Case Management; • Ensure that our services provide engagement opportunities for the people in our care, focused on building assets and returning positive citizens to communities. In taking this forward we seek to underpin this approach with quality conversations which will build on the positive relationships which currently exist; • Recognise that the people in our custody present a complex set of needs and demands; • Develop a greater understanding of the needs of our population; • Allocate activities which support the delivery of individual support plans; and • Align establishment regimes to meet the needs of their population.How many hours on average in a week, do inmates spend time for purposeful activities out of their cells ?
Prisoners not legitimately out of circulation, shall have the opportunity to spend a minimum of half a day out of cell on each week day engaged in purposeful activity.Is the purposeful activities time period (min.- max. hours in a week/month) specified in your legislation or regulations?
Educational courses, manual and skillful work, sports and gym exercise, individual therapeutic sessions, group sessions.How many hours on average in a week, do inmates spend time for purposeful activities out of their cells ?
Average of 63 hours a week.Is the purposeful activities time period (min.- max. hours in a week/month) specified in your legislation or regulations?
The prison regulations (SL.260.03) state that “Prisoners not engaged in outdoor work shall be given exercise in the open air for not less than a total of one hour, each day, if weather permits”
In the prisons in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania the follow purposeful activities take place: education, vocational training, sports, hobby courses (for example music courses), library, rehabilitation programs (for example addiction counselling, debt counselling, anti aggression training, social training courses)How many hours on average in a week, do inmates spend time for purposeful activities out of their cells ?
The amount of hours depends on the different purposeful activities. Some prisoners take part at many purposeful activities, some prisoners take part at only a few purposeful activities.Is the purposeful activities time period (min.- max. hours in a week/month) specified in your legislation or regulations?
In our legislation is no regulation of a time period for the purposeful activities.
Education in NIPS has been outsourced under a Service Level Agreement to two further education colleges – Belfast Metropolitan College and North West Regional College. A bespoke curriculum is delivered in each of the three establishments with three key elements: essential skills in literacy, mathematics and ICT; vocational learning, such as joinery, catering and painting and decorating; and employability skills. All education can be delivered to level two, with a number of options for delivery at level three. Across the three sites, there are approximately 3000 registrations per year, with approximately 2100 accreditations delivered. Additionally, NIPS works in partnership with the Open University to deliver higher education to those capable of achieving at this level. NIPS provides financial support and assistance for approximately 30 to 40 prisoners per year for this distance learning study.How many hours on average in a week, do inmates spend time for purposeful activities out of their cells ?
A general overview of purposeful activity that would include periods of in-house association. 15% of those in custody would spend approximately 16-20 hours, 80% 20-26 hours 15% 26-50 hours these figures would include those prisoners non-engaging to fully engaging. In a number of cases prisoners fully engaging would attend multiple purposeful activities and accumulate well above average hours involved in purposeful activity.Is the purposeful activities time period (min.- max. hours in a week/month) specified in your legislation or regulations?
Prison rules stipulate that no prisoner may be required to work for more than 8 hours in any day and those engaged in regular pattern of work shall have one rest day per week. Purposeful activity for example evening workers gym sessions would be additional to this however on the request of the person in custody not mandatory. All people in custody are entitled to a minimum of one hours exercise per day.
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The care and rehabilitation of persons in custody is a core aim of the Irish Prison Service (IPS). In keeping with its mission statement, the IPS endeavours to achieve a balanced approach in the effective performance of its care and custody functions. It seeks to manage sentences in a way which encourages and supports persons in prison in their efforts to live law abiding and purposeful lives on release. Care and Rehabilitation involves significant multi-dimensional input by a diverse range of general and specialist services provided both by the IPS, and statutory and non-statutory community based services. Among the various services provided at prison level include healthcare, education, library, work and training, psychology and spiritual services. These services are important in addressing missed educational and vocational opportunities, offending behaviour, drug and alcohol addiction, mental health issues and poor self-management in order that prisoners can receive appropriate healthcare interventions, achieve positive personal development and successful re-integration and resettlement in the community. The care function also involves provision of appropriate living conditions with regard to accommodation, catering, laundry, hygiene and daily regime as well as maintenance of links with the community, and measures to facilitate reintegration. The Irish Prison Service maintains an Integrated Sentence Management (ISM) system. ISM involves an orientation in the delivery of services to prisoners and an emphasis on prisoners taking greater personal responsibility for their own development through active engagement with both specialist and non-specialist services in the prisons. The end result is a prisoner-centred, multi-disciplinary approach to working with prisoners with provision for initial assessment, goal setting and periodic review to measure progress. A total of 23 dedicated ISM Coordinators are now operational in all prisons and open centres. The allocation of dedicated staff in each establishment greatly enhances the effectiveness of the sentence management system and facilitates the growing numbers of prisoners participating in the process. ISM Coordinators are also active participants in sentence planning for certain categories of prisoners serving less than one year, for example, female prisoners, prisoners who have declared their risk of homelessness on release, or prisoners participating in the Community Support Scheme. The ISM process has played a key role in the success of the Community Return Scheme. The Irish Prison Service works with the Irish Association for the Social Integration of Offenders (IASIO) to provide two operational services, the ‘Gate’ Service and the Resettlement Service. The ‘Gaining Access to Training and Employment’ (GATE) Service is a vocational service that offers guidance counseling and placement supports to referred prisoners with the overall aim of securing a placement in training or employment post-release. The Resettlement Service is a primary needs resettlement support service for prisoners with less than 18 months left to serve. The Resettlement Service provides one-to-one support from the prison to the community, assisting prisoners to access housing and welfare supports on release. The Irish Prison Service Incentivised Regimes Policy was introduced on a phased basis across all prisons in 2012 and is now operational in all institutions. Incentivised Regimes provides for a differentiation of privileges between prisoners according to their level of engagement with services and quality of behaviour. The objective is to provide tangible incentives to prisoners to participate in structured activities and to reinforce good behaviour, leading to a safer and more secure environment. There are three levels of privilege - basic, standard and enhanced and each prison has developed an information booklet on how the scheme operates and specifically on the criteria and privileges associated with each level of regime. The standard set of core privileges provided in each prison comprises of different levels of daily gratuity ranging from €0.95 to €2.20, the number and length of visits a prisoner may receive and the number of telephone calls a prisoner is allowed to make. The list of available privileges is likely to vary between prisons and within different areas of a prison, depending on the operational and infrastructure requirements of each prison. Examples of other incentives offered include improved accommodation, e.g. move from dormitory accommodation to a single room in an open centre. Prisoners can also gain access to employment opportunities within the prison e.g. kitchens, laundries. Prisoners on the enhanced regime level are significantly more likely to benefit from temporary release programmes such as Community Return – where prisoners are released early under Probation Supervision to partake of voluntary work for the benefit of the community – and/or transfer to an open centre. These are significant motivational factors in encouraging prisoners to engage in authorised structured activities and improve general behaviour. The hope is that these benefits are not just apparent in prisons and that the behavioural change effected will stay with the prisoner on his release. Experience in other jurisdictions has shown that an incentivised regime structure is a hugely valuable addition to prisons in the context of good order and prisoner compliance. All prisoners have the opportunity to become eligible for enhanced regime status provided they have met the required criteria for the preceding two months. To qualify for progression to the enhanced level, prisoners must participate actively in structured activities in education, work/training and/or offender programmes with approved services for at least five defined periods a week, unless circumstances outside their control prevent this level of engagement. Prisoners who are of consistent exemplary behaviour and make every attempt to positively engage with approved services, but who cannot through no fault of their own are not generally precluded from progression to enhanced level. A number of factors are taken into consideration and each prisoner’s eligibility is examined on a case by case basis. Prisoner participation in activities is voluntary. Prison management and multi-disciplinary teams within prisons make strenuous efforts to encourage prisoners to engage with services as part of the sentence management process. The Irish Prison Service provides a wide range of rehabilitative programmes to those in custody that include education, vocational training, healthcare, psychiatric, psychological, counselling, welfare and spiritual services. These programmes can offer purposeful activity to those in custody while serving their sentences and encouraging them to lead law abiding lives on release. These programmes are available in all prisons and all prisoners are eligible to use the services, including first time offenders. On committal, all prisoners including long term recidivists and first time offenders are interviewed by the Governor and are informed of the services available in the prison. At this point prisoners may be referred to services or they can self-refer at a later date. Where Governors consider, on the information available, that a prisoner needs a particular intervention they will initiate a referral. The development of prisoner programmes forms a central part of the Irish Prison Service Three Year Strategic Plan 2016 - 2018. There is a clear commitment in the Strategy to enhance sentence planning through Integrated Sentence Management and the delivery of prison based rehabilitative programmes. As well as seeking to draw on best practice in adult and further education in the community, there has been a lot of curriculum development over the years that is specific to prison circumstances, such as courses on addiction, health issues and offending behaviour. The Department (Ministry) of Education and Skills provides an allocation of 220 whole time teacher equivalents to the Prison Service through the Education and Training Boards (ETBs). Education in prisons is delivered in partnership between the ETBs and the Irish Prison Service with a focus on providing education which is quality assured, student centred and which facilitates lifelong learning. The partnership endeavours to meet the needs of prisoners through helping them cope with their sentence, achieve personal development and prepare for life after release. A broad and flexible curriculum is provided which ranges from basic literacy classes and peer led tutoring to Open University. There is an increasing focus on QQI accreditation as the modular structure best meets the needs of individuals in prison. On some occasions, prisoners may have to wait for a place to become available on an educational programme. Other areas where there has been significant progress in prison education are in physical education, in the provision for higher education, in the arts and in preparing prisoners for release and supporting their transition to life, and often to education, on the outside. A top priority for the Irish Prison Service is ensuring help for those with reading and writing problems and peer mentoring programmes are currently active in all of our prisons. The guiding principles which underpin the prisons' work and training service are to make available, work, work-training and other purposeful activities to all those in custody. Training activities are chosen to give as much variety as possible and also to give opportunities for those in prison to acquire practical skills which will help them secure employment on release. Work Training Officers have been appointed and assigned to areas such as catering, laundry, industrial cleaning, industrial skills and prison gyms. The Irish Prison Service has also been expanding the number of accredited courses and opportunities available to prisoners in Work Training in recent years. Enhanced partnership arrangements with accrediting bodies such as City and Guilds and the Guild of Cleaners and Launderers and the centralising of coordination and quality assurance arrangements have enabled us to extend the number of available courses and activities with certification.How many hours on average in a week, do inmates spend time for purposeful activities out of their cells ?
It is the aim of the Prison Service to allow prisoners to spend as much time as possible each day out of their cell or room to associate with other prisoners. In general prison cells are unlocked at approximately 8.15am each morning for breakfast. Prisoners collect breakfast and return to cells, which are then locked from 8.45am to 9.15am. Cells are again unlocked for prisoners to attend work, school , visits and exercise. Prisoners return for lunch at 12:00pm and cells are locked at 12.30pm. Afternoon unlock commences at 2.15pm and prisoners return to structured activities in schools, workshops and visits. Evening tea is served from 4pm and cells are locked from 4.30pm to 5.20pm when evening recreation commences until all cells are locked at 7.30pm. This allows for total out cell time of up to 8 hours.Is the purposeful activities time period (min.- max. hours in a week/month) specified in your legislation or regulations?
Yes,Rule 27(3) of the Prison Rules 2007 states "In so far as is practicable, each convicted prisoner should be engaged in authorised structured activity for a period of not less than five hours on each of five days in each week".
During the time in prison, it is the responsibility of the Prison and Probation Service (SPPS) to prepare the inmate for a better life on release, through training, work and various treatment programs. The SPSS offers formal vocational training at our prisons. Formal vocational training is given through the teaching center of prisons, which corresponds to municipal adult education. Examples of vocational education that clients can attend is natural science with a focus on gardening and industrial engineering specializing in welding or CNC. When it comes to adult education there are special educators and special teachers with special responsibility that are in support of students with special needs but also to support teachers in their work with students. Labor market education is given in cooperation with the Swedish public employment service. Examples of labor market education are welding training, flooring, plumbing and restaurant. In addition to vocational and labor market education, clients have the opportunity to attend other types of education such as basic adult education, Sfi (Swedish for immigrants), upper secondary adult education, digital tools management and so on. Our study and career counselors are key persons in terms of information to clients about the provision of different types of education. Clients can also work. Our staff should provide our clients meaningful employment during time in prison to endorse their adaptation in society after the release. KrimProd is the brand for labor services and products. The purpose of work is to increase the capacity of the clients to: • show respect and respect and keep times • follow instructions and perform work correctly • see their role and function in a broader context • contribute to and understand the importance of quality work • understand the conditions of working life and the labor market • find, get and keep a job In addition to the opportunity to study or participate in work, clients can participate in other structured activities. Other structured activities means that the clients participate in: • courses in parenting knowledge • courses in everyday knowledge • other cultural / study circles • wellness • courses to quit smoking • yoga • creative activities (hobby courses) An important way to improve the clients’ chance of a life without crime is the use of rehabilitation programs. The long-term goal of the Swedish prison and probation service is that each client should be offered treatment based on level of risk of reoffending and criminological needs. The main purpose is to reduce recidivism. The interventions need to be based on well-founded knowledge of what is effective and focus on the factors that are most important to reduce the risk of relapse. The best effect of treatment efforts is achieved when the treatment meets the principles of risk, need and responsivity (RNR). Compliance with the RNR principles is ensured by each client having an individual plan in which the risk and need has been well assessed and when the specific criminogenic needs of the client are addressed with appropriate interventions. High and medium risk clients always have several dynamic risk factors that need to be addressed. This means that the goal should be for these clients to undergo intensive treatment. The treatment programs offered in the SPPS can be divided into: preparatory -, treatment programs and boosters. Preparatory programs can be used in order to increase the client's motivation. Preparatory efforts are not expected to lead to reduced relapse in crime unless accompanied by more intensive treatment programs. Motivational Interviewing (MI) is used for preparative purpose and is a collaborative, goal-centered model that gives particular attention to client's statement of change. MI aims to strengthen the clients own motivation and commitment to change towards a specific goal by developing and exploring the person's own reasons for change Treatment programs when identified needs in several risk factors, it is important that the treatment target and affects the most important criminogenic needs of the client. If the assessment of the clients risk and need reveals the essential for intensive efforts in any of the areas of violence, violence against partner or sexual offenses, these areas should be prioritized. The treatment programs used in the SPPS target criminal behavior, violence, domestic violence, sexual offending and drug- and alcohol abuse. The majority of the programs are based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and have components derived from behavioral therapies and the cognitive therapy. The focus of the different therapies can vary, but the similarities between the different treatment programs are greater than the differences. An important difference compared to CBT in general is the focus on pro criminal attitudes. Additionally, most CBT programs for the clients in prison and probation have a strong feature of problem solving (which is part of CBT), which aims to make the client use a systematic and general approach to managing everyday problems, using the skills taught in the program. The treatment following programs are used in both prison and probation service: • Brottsbrytet - targeting a wide group of male and female clients in prison and probation and suitable to clients that have committed different types of crime, including violent crime. • Enhanced Thinking Skills - referring to male or female clients who find themselves fastened in a criminal behavior or who repeatedly commit crimes on impulse. • Integrated Domestic Abuse Program - a treatment program for men who have used threats, violence or other controlling behavior towards their female partner / former partner. There is an additional program called Relationship Violence Program (RVP) that can be roughly described as an individual form of IDAP described above. • One to one is an individual program targeting men and women who see their crime as a problem. • Prism is a program for reducing individual substance misuse targeting drug- and alcohol-abusing clients whose crime is connected to the abuse. • Puls is a treatment program focusing on aggression and violence. • National Sex Offender Treatment –is a treatment program for male sex offenders. • Violence Prevention Program target clients who committed violent crimes or murders and are considered to be at high risk of relapse in acts of violence. • Twelve-step program. Alcohol and drug program, originally developed by Alcoholics Anonymous. The program is also called the Minnesota model and is from the USA. In prison it is mainly in use in special treatment wings. The programs below are only available in prison: • Reasoning and rehabilitation 2 ADHD targets a group of clients who have some of the symptoms associated with ADHD. • Våga välja targets drug- and alcohol-abusing clients whose crime has a clear connection to the abuse. The programs below are only available in probation: • Entré - an individual treatment program for clients in probation that wants and needs help regarding organized crime and / or breaking a pattern of violent crime. Boosters can act as an enhancement after a treatment program and should be offered for clients who have undergone one or more treatment programs. In the SPPS, The Relapse Prevention Program, is used which target two groups; one focusing on alcohol and drug abuse, and the other focusing on crime. The program is primarily intended as a booster and that the client must have undergone a longer CBT program before commencing. When it comes to treatment programs directed against violence in close relation and sexual offenses, there are special reinforcement efforts that the client should undergo during probation alternatively if a long time has elapsed since the client underwent the respective treatment programs. In order to secure effectiveness the programs are regularly reviewed by a scientific panel and only programs fulfilling the requirements will be granted accreditation. To be approved, a program must among other things include: a clear model of change, based on scientific evidence, use of effective methods and site accreditation, including monitoring of implementation and staff competence. Before applying for accreditation the program is usually tried out in a limited extent during development. After accreditation the aim is to offer the program to all offenders, according to assessed risk and needs.How many hours on average in a week, do inmates spend time for purposeful activities out of their cells ?
In prison it is compulsory to partake in occupational activities for six hours daily, Monday through Friday. In addition to the activities mentioned above, clients can also participate in different leisure activities, with focus on preparing the individual before the release.Is the purposeful activities time period (min.- max. hours in a week/month) specified in your legislation or regulations?
Occupation and remuneration are regulated in Chapter 3. in the Act on Imprisonment. However, it is not specified in the law to what extent, how many hours per day, one prisoner should participate in any activity. The local routines at our prisons should indicate how many hours of employment our clients are usually given for one week. This may vary between different departments and different types of activities at one and the same prison The Act on Imprisonment regulates the following in terms of occupation and compensation. The prisoner’s right to occupation Section 1 A prisoner shall be given the opportunity to take part in occupation in the form of work, education, training, programmes related to crime and misuse or some other structured occupational activity. Obligation to take part in occupation Section 2 A prisoner is obliged to carry out or take part in the occupation assigned to him or her. A prisoner in receipt of old-age pension in accordance with the Social Insurance Code may not be required to undertake an occupation. A prisoner who has been granted sickness benefit or activity compensation in accordance with the same Code may only be required to undertake occupation of the nature and to the extent that can be regarded as suitable for him or her. A prisoner may not be required to submit to treatment of medical character. Remuneration Section 3 A prisoner is entitled to remuneration from the Prison and Probation Service if (1) he or she has carried out or participated in an assigned occupation, and (2) remuneration for the occupation is not being paid for by another person or body. The Prison and Probation Service regulations and general advice says that "To a client that are involved in structured and scheduled program activities and in other eligible activities, compensation shall be paid for the actual time taken by the participant and may together amount to a maximum of 40 hours per normal week and at least 30 hours per normal week"
The following purposeful activities are implemented in the Lithuanian prisons: basic and secondary education, vocational training, university education (tuition paid by inmates themselves), various purposeful activities (sports, fine arts, educational, agro-cultural activities). Hobby courses are not organized individually, but inmates can take part in offered leisure activities in accordance with their hobbies.How many hours on average in a week, do inmates spend time for purposeful activities out of their cells ?
Inmates spend 4 – 5 hours on average per day (28-35 hours per week)for purposeful activities out of their cells.Is the purposeful activities time period (min.- max. hours in a week/month) specified in your legislation or regulations?
No. (But in accordance to the recommendations of the CPT, off-cells activities (including inmates‘ work) should be limited to 8 hours per day).
The Danish Prison and Probation Service is responsible for offering a variety of activities in the prisons. Some of them aim to meet the criminological needs of the inmates to the extent possible. Below some of the occupations are unfold: Work There is a variety of opportunities for the inmates to work with manufacturing, divided into seven different industries; wood, metal, textile, graphic, production work in a kitchen, agriculture and assembly work. However, not all industries are to be found in every prison. In addition to the seven different industries, the inmates may be engaged in internal service and maintenance of The Danish Prison and Probation’s buildings. This include cleaning, painting, masonry, carpentry and forging work. In addition, there may be tasks related to the maintenance of the green areas of the institutions. Education Both inmates and detainees have the opportunity to participate in teaching and to conduct tests. All prisons have prison schools, which offer teaching in basic skills in reading and arithmetic and, in addition, education on primary school level. In some prisons, the inmates may also be allowed to read HF (a youth education programme at upper secondary level), medium and long higher education as self-taught students - mostly by remote learning/e-learning - and in some cases they may be allowed to participate in education during release. This is only possible if the prisoner complies with the rules of release and has served the proportion of the sentence required. As an inmate in prison, it is also possible to start and complete different first year core curriculums in vocational education, and many both prisons and detention houses also offer a number of adult vocational training. Treatment against drug- and alcohol abuse The Danish Prison and Probation Service offers a wide range of treatment facilities in prisons aimed at reflecting the spectrum of treatments possible in the society. The treatments vary in intensity, duration and objective. As an example, all prisons have low-intensity treatment for marijuana abuse, and a number of prisons have high-intensity treatment options at special sections. Program activities The purpose of the programs is to target behavioral skills and provide inmates with new skills in relation to their behavior and interaction with other people. Through presentations, exercises and training, the inmates teach methods that can be used both during reconciliation and after release - which can help preventing them from relapsing into new crime. Below is a short presentation of each of the programs: The Cognitive Skills Program - a treatment program that teaches participants to overcome everyday problems without resorting to criminal behavior. Booster - a follow-up program for the Cognitive Skills Program. Anger Management - A motivation program that gives participants the tools to control anger and other strong emotions. Violence Prevention - A treatment program that will motivate participants to live a life without the use of violence and threats. New ways - a treatment program that will help participants break out of crime through greater insight into their own actions. Strength and Winn - A conversation and motivation program developed specifically for sentenced women.How many hours on average in a week, do inmates spend time for purposeful activities out of their cells ?
Inmates are occupied on an average of 37 hours per week. The average time spent per week on each of the occupational interventions is as follows: work 56%, education 13%, treatment 9%, program activities 1% and other 21% (sickness, unemployment, absence, lack of work).Is the purposeful activities time period (min.- max. hours in a week/month) specified in your legislation or regulations?
The Law of Sentence Enforcement regulates that an inmate has the right and duty to be occupied by participating in work, education or other approved activities. However, detainees in a detention house are not covered by this obligation, cf. executive Order BEK nr. 901 of 25/06/2018 but must be offered occupation. The executive order further specifies the time period of occupation by stating that the time spent on occupation must be kept within the labor market standards, including any overtime standards. The executive order further states that occupation usually takes place on the first 5 days of the week and is distributed by at least 7 hours on each of these days. A lunch break of no more than 29 minutes is included in the hours of occupation. A short break may be held no more than 15 minutes in the morning and afternoon if the occupation permits.
The Strategic Plan for Assistance and Services to Detainees (2000) and the Decree related to the organization of assistance and services to detainees (2013) form the basis of the voluntary provision of assistance and services in every prison of Flanders and Brussels. There is a set range of process guidance, mental health care, sports and cultural activities as well as assistance to find a job with the Vlaamse Dienst voor arbeidsbemiddeling en beroepsopleidingen (Flemish department for placement services and vocational training). Except for the non-profit association V.Z.W. De Rode Antraciet, which provides a range of sports and cultural activities, all the other organizations are aimed at the free citizens too, but they adapt their services to the specific context and target audience of the prisons. Furthermore, depending on the target audience in the prison as well as on the needs and possibilities, collaboration takes place with a large number of other departments, such as the Vlaams Agentschap voor Personen met een Handicap (Flemish agency for persons with disabilities), Kind en gezin (Flemish child welfare agency), training associations, local libraries, and so on. The coordination is carried out by the Departement Welzijn, Volksgezondheid en Gezin (Flemish welfare, public health and family department), which appoints a policy coordinator in every prison. (Flemish welfare, public health and family department)How many hours on average in a week, do inmates spend time for purposeful activities out of their cells ?
It is impossible to give an answer to the question of the average amount of time detainees spend on assistance and services activities. A new system of activities is currently under consideration, in which reporting can indicate the participation rate in the activities. However, an average rate will not mean much because the differences are too large. Moreover, the reasons why detainees do not participate in activities largely differ from one prison to another: some detainees attend additional care programs; some detainees do not take part in any activity while others do very intensively; there are times when no activity can be organized because of actions undertaken by the prison officers’ trade unions in some prisons; the opportunities of organizing activities widely vary from one prison to another; taking part in particular activities depends on the status of the detainee, and so on. A survey of the activities can be found on the following web site: https://www.departementwvg.be/welzijn-en-samenleving-hulp-en-dienstverlening-aan-gedetineerden (Flemish welfare, public health and family department)Is the purposeful activities time period (min.- max. hours in a week/month) specified in your legislation or regulations?
The regulations regarding the range of assistance and services do not provide for any specification on that matter. Participation is on a voluntary basis. The federal law, however, makes provision for at least 2 hours of sports activities a week per detainee. (Flemish welfare, public health and family department)
According with Section 61.2 of the The Sentence Execution Code of Latvia, Resocialization of convicted persons shall be implemented by applying the measures of correcting the social behaviour of convicted persons or social rehabilitation. Resocialization measures of convicted persons shall be applied individually or by means of group work according to the type of deprivation of liberty institution, the imposed sentence execution regime and assessment of the risks and needs of the convicted person. According with Section 61.3 the The Sentence Execution Code of Latvia, Social rehabilitation means of convicted persons are: 1) education - involving of a convicted person in general, vocational and interest educational programmes; 2) involving of convicted persons, as determined by this Code, in the performance of socially useful work (work of convicted persons in the facility management of deprivation of liberty institutions, work places created by a merchant at the deprivation of liberty institution or outside it depending on the sentence serving regime imposed on the convicted person, employment without remuneration laid down in the law); 3) solving of the social problems of the convicted person taking into the consequences of imprisonment (improvement, renewal and ensuring of acquisition of social skills by a convicted person, provision of information regarding the possibilities of receiving social services and social assistance after release from the deprivation of liberty institution, taking care of personal identification documents); 4) psychological care - psychological study of the convicted person, psychological consultation, as well as provision of psychological assistance in a crisis situation at the deprivation of liberty institution; 5) organisation of leisure time events - involvement of the convicted person in cultural, informative, art, amateur and sports events; 6) addiction reduction programme - involvement of the convicted person in purposeful and structured activities to develop social skills, behaviour and socially supported value system. General and Professional education establishments in imprisonment places are implementing general and Professional education programmes. For example, in 2017 there were implemented 17 general education programmes, including 5 special education programmes for minors with study deficiencies, mental health problems and mental disorders; as well as 24 professional education programmes. Prisoners were provided with the possibility to acquire 17 different Professional qualifications, e.g., hairdresser, carpenter, welder, data entry operator, auto locksmith etc. In imprisonment places interest/informal education is also implemented. Convicted persons are employed (with pay) in 1) the economic crew of the prison; 2) at the places of employment set up by businessmen located at the prison; 3) outside the prison, if permitted by the sentencing regime of the convict. In imprisonment places are implemented resocialization programmes (e.g. in 2017, 10 resocialization programmes were implemented), including addiction reduction programme. In imprisonment places psychological care is carried out, thus in every prison there are provided the following psychological care activates: 1)individual consultations (one session is around 45-60 min long); 2)crisis intervention (in the case of a crisis, e.g., suicidal behaviour); 3) psychodiagnistic activities to research the social, emotional and intellectual sphere of the inmate; 4) psychological assessment, by compiling and analysing the results of the psychodiagnostic; resocialization programmes (social behaviour correctional programme and social rehabilitation programmes); inmate risk and needs assessment.How many hours on average in a week, do inmates spend time for purposeful activities out of their cells ?
Please see answer to Question 1.Is the purposeful activities time period (min.- max. hours in a week/month) specified in your legislation or regulations?
In the legislation there is no set time period for the resocialization measures as their use depends on the individual needs of every inmate; however, in the inmate’s resocialization plan, developed by the resocialization department staff, there is a set time-frame during which each of the resocialization activities must be implemented.
Employment: Employment is a combination of work, education, vocational training, therapeutic employment and other reintegration programs. Obligatory employment of detainees is a twofold objective for the employed, one of the basic conditions for the preservation of mental and physical health, gaining income, working on the external site and the source of usefulness, which is an important driving force behind post-release social integration. On the other hand, for the Hungarian Prison Service Organization, it grants, that is partly self-sustaining, self-sufficient, giving a source of income, contributing to maintenance costs, and helping to maintain safety and improve the disciplinary situation. Obligatory employment is stipulated by law, according to which detainees deemed fit should be engaged in employment, especially in employment practices. One of the most important elements of successful social reintegration of prisoners is the provision of education and the organization of marketable vocational training. The main purpose of the activity in this area is to promote labour market reintegration following the release, beyond knowledge transfer. The education of detainees is carried out in addition to vocational training in elementary, secondary and in higher education (distance education, correspondence education). Art therapy and creative programs Art therapy and creative professions are more closely linked to reparation programs, and objects done within the workshops are often handed over to various public and non-governmental organizations. The most typical are hospitals, homes providing housing and care for the elderly, and foster homes for children in need of state care. Participation in art therapy and creative programs is continuously ensured by the Hungarian Prison Service Institutes for prisoners. In addition to regular occupational activities, there are occasional theatre performances and festive programs organized by the Hungarian Prison Service Institutions. The Hungarian Prison Service Institutes are continuously providing access to art therapy and creative programs for prisoners. Right brain hemisphere drawing Right brain hemisphere or so-called elongating drawing technique is designed to develop skills that include the development of mental, psychic, and sketching skills. During the implementation of the exercising tasks, a new kind of vision is created that will enable the participants to have a more thorough and accurate observation, and this will lead to the development of their sketching skills. Reparation programs The Hungarian Prison Service Organization considers it important for society to meet as wide as possible with reparation events. Reparation programs are mainly implemented in cooperation with local authorities and supported by the National Crime Prevention Council, with the main purpose of symbolic restoration of harm and damage. In the framework of volunteer work, detainees make settlements more beautiful (playground renovations, landscaping) and take part in public renovation works. However, they collect and donate donations to people in need. In the framework of reparation programs, detainees meet with high school kids as part of a crime prevention visit and assist with the cessation of their lives in the prevention of becoming a criminal or victim. Trainings Communication training Its purpose is to increase the communication toolbox to enable the detainee to consciously manage his own communication and to develop an effective behaviour that is appropriate for the given situation, to be able to effectively self-assert, and to non-aggressively enforce his own position. The technique can be applied in any life situation and medium. This is especially important in family relations. Self-knowledge training Its purpose is for a person to master the possibilities of knowing himself, to be able to develop a realistic, positive self-image, to expand his role set to increase his personal effectiveness. Conflict Management Training Its purpose is to develop detainees' conflict management skills, learn different conflict management tools, develop their self-knowledge and communication skills. Creative workshop Its aim is to develop the motivation of detainees, to discover the joy of creation, the desire for arts, craftsmanship as an activity and expression, to raise interest, to resolve the accumulated tension arising from closure, thereby reducing the prisoner's damages. Tobacco quitting training The training is conducted under the guidance of a psychologist to keep the volunteer inmates responsible for handling their dependence on smoking and to choose a smoke-free way of life. Smoking cessation greatly helps detainees improve their quality of life, preserve their health. Use of dramatic pedagogical methods, maintenance of playgroup operations It is a priority to provide for the prisoners held in the Hungarian Prison Service Institutions programs that are not only useful for spending leisure time - and thus increase the security of detention - but also to develop, maintain their motivation, develop their individual skills and abilities, and develop their sense of responsibility. Another objective of the project is to show to the wider community that people living behind bars and closed walls are also worthy of societies acceptance. The number of playful groups is determined by the staff who are engaged in the occupation, the venue is a community room or classroom. The result of everyday cultural and reintegration work is the organization and implementation of the National Prison Theatre Meetings, which has been held so far three times. Almost all Hungarian Prison Service Institutions run drama pedagogy or a similar kind of workshop. The actions are organized by the Hungarian Prison Service Institutions at local level, but there is a demand for the sodality to show their stage capacities to each other and to their families and relatives. Operation of Prison Radios The operation of the prison radio facilities provides good opportunities to increase the quality of professional work in prisons, with special regard to expanding the cultural and recreational employment of involved prisoners, developing their communication and technical competences and providing prisoners with information of public interest. Religious programs The most important task is to organize and coordinate tasks related to spiritual care, faith and religion. This is done in two main forms: group spiritual care and individual spiritual care. In addition it is a priority to solve, prevent the existing aggression and prevent suicide acts. Promoting the reintegration of people who have been released but are not in contact with society and the restoration and strengthening of family relationships are also a requirement of the Service. In addition to the historic churches delegating prison clerics, other Churches and mission organizations are also doing an important job to accomplish the above mentioned tasks. Relationships with them and the coordination of mission work are part of prison clerical activity. Prison Cursillo The cursillo (Spanish word) means a short course about Christianity in Hungarian. The program offers a very intense religious experience for the participants. The cursillo method fits in well with the reintegration of detainees, since the underlying movement is a movement that is closer to the Christians of the society, which serves the purpose of social sensitization, family cohesion and individual activism to become a useful member of the community. National Detainee Pilgrimage László Bíró Roman Catholic camp bishop, the bishop of the Roman Catholic Prison Bishops on the Vatican Initiative raised the idea of the pilgrimage of Mátraverebély-Szentkút, which was organized for the third time in 2018, involving 16 Hungarian Prison Service Institutions and 74 detainees. This program can give the convicts a spiritual experience that can strengthen their ability to join civilian religious communities after their release to help their integration.How many hours on average in a week, do inmates spend time for purposeful activities out of their cells ?
The duration of detention programs varies, concrete number can not be given, they are organized in prisoners' leisure time. The organization and implementation of the programs should be in line with the other obligations and duties of detainees Agenda.Is the purposeful activities time period (min.- max. hours in a week/month) specified in your legislation or regulations?
Legislation implementing activities: -"2013 CCXL. Act on the Implementation of Penalties, Measures, Certain Constraints and Detention Blockings " -"16/2014. (XII. 19.) Ministry of Justice decree on the detailed rules for the execution of the detention, obturation, pre-trial detention and detention, in addition to the rules of implementation, there are no specific time limits.
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Convicts For each convict there are determined meaningful, complex and structured activities in an individual treatment program that is prepared on the basis of knowledge about convict and his personal qualities, professional knowledge, level of education, inclusion in external and internal differentiation, respectively according to possibilities of particular prison facility in which convict serves a prison sentence. The aim of these activities is to support and develop a sense of responsibility, compliance with laws and social norms, positive personal qualities, respect to others, self-esteem and positive relationship with the family, respectively limitation of adverse effects of the prison environment. The treatment program contains the below stated parts/ blocks and approach of the convict in their fulfilment is evaluated at regular intervals: - education (formal and informal educational activities), - leisure time activities (sports, group activities, spiritual services – content of these activities is regulated by offer sheets of cultural and awareness raising activities), - inclusion to work, - relationships with the external environment, - other treatment methods and procedures (special-pedagogical, psychological, therapeutic and rehabilitation activities). Pre-trial detainees Treatment program shall not be determined for the pre-trial detainees. Pre-trial detainee may take a part in short-term educational and awareness raising group activities, leisure activities, sports and other activities on the basis of the offer sheets that are prepared by the professional prison staff.How many hours on average in a week, do inmates spend time for purposeful activities out of their cells ?
Convicts The answer to this question depends on the determined external and internal differentiation – that is placement of convict within the progressive system of the prison sentence. This system is managed by the principle that the higher is a guarding level, the greater is the range of restrictions and range of realized purposeful activities – from realization of purposeful activities outside the cell during all day (minimum guarding level) to the realization of purposeful activities outside the cell only for 1 – 2 hours a day (maximum guarding level; convicts serving life imprisonment). Pre-trial detainees The participation of pre-trial detainees in purposeful activities outside the cell depends on the way of execution of pre-trial detention (pre-trial detention is executed either in standard regime or in mitigated regime). Offer sheets are prepared in the same way as for the convicts, separately for individual pre-trial detention regimes. In standard regime, pre-trial detainee is placed all day solely in cell with the exception of a walk. In mitigated regime, pre-trial detainee may move around outside the cell all day and participate in short-term educational and awareness raising activities, leisure activities and sports.Is the purposeful activities time period (min.- max. hours in a week/month) specified in your legislation or regulations?
No, according to particularities of the individual prison facilities, the system of execution of prison sentence and pre-trial detention, we do not have specified the minimum time for purposeful activities with imprisoned persons.
Education in prisons falls under the competence of the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs. According to the Correctional Code, the provision of primary education is obligatory for young detainees aged below 21 years (para. 5 art. 35 CorC). Accordingly, regular Elementary Schools as well as High Schools and, in some cases, Lyceum classes operate in all Detention Facilities for Juvenile and Young Offenders. A range of educational institutions operate as well in many detention facilities for adults. In particular, prisoners may attend language classes (in order to get Elementary School certificate), Second Chance Schools (equivalent to High Schools), Vocational Training Institutes (for students who have graduated from secondary education). According to law, the qualifications (graduation certificates) awarded in all educational units in prisons are equivalent to the ones awarded by the corresponding units in the community, without any reference that education has been provided in prison. It is worth mentioning that beneficial penalty calculation is provided for detainees who attend educational and training programmes in prison. Prisoners have also full access to tertiary education: they may take exams to enter a University or Technical Institution. Following a MOU signed between the General Secretariat for Crime Policy of the Ministry of Justice and the Hellenic Open University in 2016, each year 20 prisoners are granted full scholarships to attend distance undergraduate studies. Moreover, prisoners who participate in tertiary education may be granted educational leave, following request to the competent authorities of the detention facility. Special provisions regulate the possibility of attending higher education courses outside the detention facility under electronic surveillance. Following recent legislation (article 31 of Law No 4521/ 2018, Government Gazette A’ 38), education in prison is significantly strengthened. More specifically, a full range of educational units in every detention facility in the country is established: elementary and secondary schools (High School, Lyceum), Second Chance Schools, language classes and Vocational training (following graduation from secondary education). Moreover, a permanent primary or secondary school teacher is appointed in every detention facility (called “education coordinator”) with the task to ensure that the educational needs of detainees are met and that the necessary educational units are established in every prison. It is noted that the implementation of the aforementioned legislative framework by the competent Ministries of Justice and Education is under process. Prisoners may also participate in various educational, vocational training and recreational programmes which are organised either in cooperation with the Ministry of Education or other bodies and volunteers, e.g. vocational training programmes by OAED (Manpower Employment Organisation). Specific athletic programmes are organised in several prison facilities in cooperation with the General Secretariat of Sports following a strategic agreement with the General Secretariat for Crime Policy. As regards cultural activities, they are organised locally in cooperation with social voluntary organisations and active citizens. Moreover, theatrical and dancing workshops have been developed in recent years in cooperation with the National Theatre and the Greek National Opera Alternative Stage as well as other public cultural bodies, following central agreements with the General Secretariat for Crime Policy. Finally, various programmes inside prisons are developed by the legal entity EPANODOS, for the preparation of the reintegration of released offenders. EPANODOS is the legal body for the Social Reintegration of Ex-Prisoners which operates under the supervision of the Greek Ministry of Justice, Transparency and Human Rights. EPANDOS organizes programs which prepare prisoners for life “outside prison bars” and aim at their smooth reintegration into free society. • Carries out activities aimed at prisoners’ creative occupation and training. • Carries out educational and cultural activities aimed at bringing images of free life into correctional facilities. • Cooperates with the social service staff working in correctional facilities and provides prisoners with counseling services, especially about legal matters and pending legal issues which they may encounter. Moreover, it provides social support and aid for them and their families. • Informs prisoners and ex-prisoners about their labor rights, allowances and financial reliefs to which they are entitled, about current subsidized vocational training programs and work experience programs, as well as about the existing labor supply and labor demand, always in cooperation with the Greek Manpower Employment Organization (O.A.E.D.) and other competent agencies. • Provides ex-prisoners with housing and feeding for a short period of time, meets their urgent needs and assists them in resolving specific problems which they may encounter.How many hours on average in a week, do inmates spend time for purposeful activities out of their cells ?
Inmates spend approximately 55 hours/week out of cells. During this time they may participate voluntarily in purposeful and free time activities.Is the purposeful activities time period (min.- max. hours in a week/month) specified in your legislation or regulations?
The organization of the daily time schedule of detainees, including the available time out of cells for sports, education, participation in programmes and free time, is provided under the current penitentiary legislation and specifically under the internal regulations of detention establishments (Ministerial Order 58819/2003 art. 8, Governmental Gazette B’ 463 and Ministerial Order 62367/2005 art. 8, Governmental Gazette B’ 889).
The reform of the Italian Penitentiary Act (Law nr 354 of 1975) brought a number of fundamental principles in the Italian penitentiary system. One of the pillars of said Law was the introduction of a penitentiary treatment inspired to principles of humanity and dignity, as an enforcement of the rehabilitating function of the punishments, which was established by article 27 of the Italian Constitution. Article 13 of the Penitentiary Act provides for the treatment to be tailored on the personal, social and judicial needs of the prisoner. Article 15 of the Penitentiary Act lists the instruments to carry out individualized treatment, and namely: education, work, cultural, leisure and sport activities, religion and contacts with inmates’ families and the outside world on the whole. Our law sets three fields of activities, in particular: culture, as an opportunity of personal growth as well as an experience of learning; sport, as a means aimed at promoting psycho-physical well-being and integrity, at learning motor skills and at lessening tensions inherent to detention; leisure activities as opportunities to socialize and to express one’s creativity and personal skills. All those opportunities are intended to push the subjects to change their life attitudes and to share rules and objectives with others. Since the first entry of the prisoner into the penal establishment, a scientific observation of the finally sentenced offenders is carried out, aimed at enabling a targeted individualization of the rehabilitation treatment. Said observation aims at assessing the needs of each subject, connected with possible physical, psychic, emotional, education or social deficiencies, which prevented the subject from leading a normal life of relations. Before starting the observation, the offenders’ judicial, penitentiary, clinical, psychological and social data are gathered, and then a treatment program is drafted. Within the programs of training and education carried in our prisons, the Italian penitentiary system foresees a number of projects aimed at inmates’ social reintegration to be implemented in cooperation with the Ministry of Education and with education institutions. In 2016, the Agreement between the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Education was renewed for the development of education in prisons both for adults and for minors. A new National Equal Committee was established, to boost and coordinate the development of the activities foreseen under the above-mentioned agreement. Said agreement is the point of arrival of an effective cooperation between the said Ministries, with the objective of both experimenting a new model of didactics, more corresponding to the needs of the imprisoned students and to enforce the new didactic scheme provided for Adult Learning, which is based upon the Provincial centers for Adults Learning. The innovation in that new system consists in exploiting at best the cultural and professional background of the subjects by retracing one’s individual history and by acknowledging the individual’s skills and knowledge acquired. Moreover, articles 12 and 19 of the Italian Penitentiary Act provide for the presence of a library in each Italian prison; article 21 of the Regulations of Enforcement of the Penitentiary Act provides for that the library is composed of books and reviews chosen according to criteria that ensure a balanced representation of the cultural pluralism existing in the outside society. The inmates are granted easy access to the publications in the library, besides the possibility to access other publications by entering in specific agreements with public libraries in the community. In the Italian penitentiary system, work is one of the main elements of offenders’ rehabilitation treatment. Indeed, prisoners must have access to a job, except when this is impossible. Article 20 of the Penitentiary Act – amended in 2018 – sets the main characteristics of prison work. Prison work is not characterized as a punishment (this is in line with the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the treatment of prisoners and with the European Prison Rules of the Council of Europe – Recommendation (2006)2, which consider work as a positive element of the offenders’ treatment) and is remunerated. Article 22 of the Penitentiary Act, concerning the determination of earnings, provides for that the remuneration for each category of prisoners employed by the Penitentiary Administration is established in relation to the quantity and quality of work actually carried out, in proportion to at least two-thirds of the wages provided for in the national collective work agreements. In outdoor spaces (courtyards), individual and collective sport activities are encouraged, with equipment provided by the Administration, subject to security and safety requirements. Sport practice in prison plays a meaningful role aimed at promoting body development and at lessening tensions and, at the same time, brings people together and proposes positive models of relations, as a support to the reintegration plan of inmates. Sport programs, which aim at involving a large part of the prison population, are generally carried out and developed through specific agreements with national and local sport associations. Article 26 of the Penitentiary Act provides for that Prisoners and internees are free to profess their own religious faith, to practice worship and to acquire religious education. Religious assistance is ensured in every prison for every religion. For the Catholic religion, there is one Chaplain in each prison.How many hours on average in a week, do inmates spend time for purposeful activities out of their cells ?
The prisoners who do not work and belong to the category of “medium security” (that is the majority of the Italian prison population) stay outside their cells for 8 hours a day on average (56 per week), carrying out leisure, sport, didactic and religious activitiesIs the purposeful activities time period (min.- max. hours in a week/month) specified in your legislation or regulations?
One circular letter of 2016 of the Penitentiary Administration establishes the organizational management of the wings where prisoners are locked in their cells and of the wings where inmates can stay outside for 8 hours a day. “Closed” wings accommodate prisoners who are considered more dangerous. Usually they are included in the category of “high security” prisoners due to their crime or to their dangerousness; in closed wings we can find also prisoners who – due to their behavior in prison – are not fit for the assignment to an open condition. In open wings, when inmates stay outside their cells, any situation of idleness must be avoided. Thus, the open condition of inmates is to go along with specific treatment activities (sport, leisure, culture) to be organized either in the common premises or in the courtyards. In those wings, the Penitentiary Police staff makes a direct surveillance on inmates by the means of a security check-post and of patrols, which can intervene in case of incidents jeopardizing order and security. The observation and treatment team of prison professionals assesses the inmates and assigns to open wings those ones who are considered fit for a regime allowing more freedom of movement and longer stay in common premises and courtyards. In open wings, after the cells are open in the morning and after the ordinary checks, the prisoners can reach on their own – without any escorting staff – the areas of the prison where they will attend treatment activities organized by the prison staff in cooperation with public or private bodies and with volunteers.